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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biased introduced into study when a clinician is aware of what type of treatment patient has received
observational bias
bias introduced when screening detects a disease earlier and thus lengthens the time from diagnosis to death
lead-time bias
if you want to know if race affects infant mortality rate but most of the variation in infant mortality is predicted by SES, then SES is a ________?
confounding variable
true positives divided by the number of patients with disease
sensitvie tests have few false negatives and used to rule out disease
ppd reactivity is used as a screening test for TB because most people with TB (except anergics) will have a positive PPD
Sensitive or Specific?
highly sensitive
chronic diseases like SLE - higher prevalence or incidence?
epidemics such as influenza - higher incidence or prevalence?
cross-sectional study - incidence or prevalence
cohort study - incidence or prevalence?
case-control study - incidence or prevalence?
describe a test that consistently gives identical results, but the results are wrong
highly reliable, low validity
difference between a cohort and case-control study
cohort - prosepective and can be used to calculate RR and incidence
case-control - retrospective and can be used to calculate OR
attributable risk?
incidence rate (IR) of disease in exposed-IR of disease in unexposed
relative risk
IR of disease in a population exposed to a particular factor/IR of those not exposed to the factors
odds ratio
likelihood of exposure to a risk factor in individuals with and without the disease
In which patients do you initiate CRC screening early?
pts with IBD, FAP, HNPCC, first-degree relatives with adenomatous polyps (<60y/o) or CRC
most common cancer in men and most common cause of death from cancer in men
prostate cancer more common, lung cancer causes more deaths
percentage of cases within one standard deviation, 2, 3?
68%, 95.5%, 99.7%
birth rate?
number of live births per 1000 population
fertility rate?
number of live births per 1000 women 15-44y/o
mortality rate
number of deaths per 1000 population
neonatal mortality?
number of deaths from birth to 28days to one year per 1000 live births
infant mortality
neonatal + postnatal mortality
fetal mortality?
number of deaths from 20 weeks gestation to birth per 1000 total births
perinatal mortality
number of deaths from 20 weeks gestation to one month of life per 1000 total births
maternal mortality
number of deaths during pregnancy to 90 days postpartum per 100000 live births