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105 Cards in this Set

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Epidemiology
The study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution
5 Goals of Epidemiology
IDSEP
Identify causes and risk factors
Determine extent of disease
Study the natural history of disease
Evaluate preventative and theraputic interventions
Provide foundation for public policy interventions.
Incidence
Number of new cases occurring in a particular time period.
Incidence rate
the ratio of new cases ocurring in a particular time period to the total number of people AT RISK
Point Prevalence
number of people affected by a disease at a particular point in time.
Period prevalence
The total number of people affected by a disease over a particular time period.
Prevalence rate
ratio of the number of people with a disease to the number of people at risk at a particular time or time period.
Attack Rate
ratio of the number of people contracting a disease to the number of people at risk (expressed as a percentage)
What is the difference between incidence rate and attack rate.
Attack rate is used to describe a short term risk or exposure (Like the seasonal flu)
Mortality rate
ratio of the number of people dying over a period of time to the number of people at risk
What is the effect of preventative measures on Prevalence and Incidence?
decrease both incidence and prevalence
Case Fatality Rate
the ratio of the number of people dying in a particular episode of a disease to the total number of episodes of the disease expressed as a percentage.

Think Pneumonia. 20% of pneumonia cases are fatal for example.
Treatment of a disease with full recovery will do what to incidence and prevalence?
Prevalence decreases, incidence remains constant.
Theraputic treatment of a disease does what to incidence and prevalence?
Increases prevalence, incidence remains constant.
Why is prevalence not always the best statistic to analyze the success of a treatment?
Prevalence will increase in cases of death prevention or theraputic treatment.
Name the two broad categories of data.
Discrete - groups or ranks
Continuous - intervals or values
Nominal Data
Discret groups: male/female
Ordinal Data
Discrete data ordered without meaningful intervals.

The good
The bad
The ugly
Interval Data
Continuous data with meaningful intervals not centered around an absolute 0. (Temperature in celsius)
Ratio Data
Interval data with an absolute 0
Frequency
absolute number in a particular category
Relative frequency
percentage of values in a particular category when compared to the whole
Cumulative frequency
Total number at or below a threshold. Percentile.
Frequency Polygon
used to display continuous interval data where the midpoint of each subgroup is marked as a point and connected by lines.
Cumulative Frequency polygon
Similar to frequency polygon, but the values are additive and eventually reach a maximum point in the last subgroup.

Great for estimating percentile data.
What is the benefit of a Kaplan Meier Curve when compared with a normal survival curve?
Kaplan Mayer curves are referred to as censored data. This accounts for new additions or early exits from the study. (For example, a car accident in a heart surgery survival study)

cuts from both numerator and denominator.
Positive Skew
Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the right signifying a number of extreme values which are higher than the mean.

Mode --> Median --> Mean
Right Skew
Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the right signifying a number of extreme values which are higher than the mean.

Mode --> Median --> Mean
Left Skew
Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the left signifying a number of extreme values which are lower than the mean.

Mean-->Median-->Mode
Negative Skew
Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the left signifying a number of extreme values which are lower than the mean.

Mean-->Median-->Mode
Variance
quantifies the scatter (spread) present in a distribution of values.

average of the squared differences from the mean.
Standard deviation
square root of the variance

68% of data is within 1 SD
95% within 2 SD
99.7% within 3 SD
What percentage of data is within 1 SD?
68%
What percentage of data is within 2SD?
95%
What percentage of data is within 3 SD?
99.7%
What percentage of data is above 2SD in a normal distribution?
2.5% ABOVE!!!
What is the probability of two independent events occuring?
P1 X P2
What is the probability that 1 of two possible outcomes occur?
P1 + P2 - (P1xP2)

Remember to exclude the possibility of both happening.
Parametric Tests
focused on population parameters.
require a continuous variable

(assumes a normal distribution)
Think p values!
Sampling distribution.
Averages data in a bimodal distribution to create a normal distribution.

Generated by the central limit theorum.
non parametric tests
can be applied to discrete variables. does not make assumptions about the distribution.
Paired t-test
Parametric - compares mean of a single group before and after treatment
T-test
Compares means between two groups. (experimental vs placebo)
ANOVA
parametric test - compares means between more than two groups.
Chi-squared
non parametric test - a test of proportions.
Type I error
False Positive
Type II error
False Negative
Power
estimate of the ability of a study to detect a false null hypothesis. in other words, to detect a significant difference.

the probability of avoiding a type II error.
what is the Power of a test with an beta value of .05 that rejects the null hypothesis
95%
Standard error of the mean.
found by dividing the stardard deviation by the square root of the sample size.

Statistically misleading. used to fudge data.
Randomized Controlled Trials
subjects randomly assigned to interventions groups with a control group involved.
List the three types of Randomization discussed in class and describe them.
Pure random selection - equal probabiltiy of anyone being chosen

Systematic Randomization - every third infant born...

Stratified randomization - divide groups to ensure equal representtion of sub groups.
Intention to Treat Analysis
Each subject is assumed to comply with the study regardless of cooperation.

If a drug has horrible side effects and the subject withdraws, this will be reported as if the patient took the drug. (enables failure to be acocunted for)

Typically this study is done in conjunction with a study and not alone.
Interim analysis
Analyzing data before the scheduled end of the study. done for ethical concerns of the subjects.
Prospective Cohort Studies
observing a cohort not affected by any disease and recording data on their risk factors and future exposure.
What is a major flaw of prospective cohort studies?
It is not effective for rare diseases and expensive.
Inception Cohort
subjects followed soon after developing disease.
Historical Cohort
information regarding the cohort is obtained from previously collected or existing historical data.
Case Control Study
a group affected by a condition is compared with a group unaffected. Retrospective data on risk factors is then collected
Cross Sectional Study
survey a population for simultaneous presence of a disease and potential risk factors.

Prevalence of diabetes in one community compared with another.
Can causality be determined in a cross sectional study?
No, only suspected since symptoms and risk factors are discovered simultaneously.
Case Report/ Case Series
describes a clinical event in a single patient or series of patients.

no statistical validation is possible.
Systematic Review
summary of the medical literature regarding a clinical question.

Most powerful study if quality is high.
What are the potential pitfalls of a systemic review?
Heterogeneity and Publication Bias.
Gold Standard
a test which is considered to be consistently correct and to which other tests can be compared.
Reliability
level of agreement between repeated measurements of the same variable- reproducability
Validity
extent to which a test actually tests for what it claims to test.
Sensitivity
ability to detect people who have the disease.

TP/(TP+FN)
Specificity
Ability to detect people who do not have the disease
what does SPIN refer to?
Tests with high specificity can be used to rule in outcomes
What does SNOUT refer to?
Tests with high sensitivity can be used to rule out outcomes
How do you calculate sensitivity?
Sensitivity = True positives / (True positives + False Negatives)
How do you calculate specificity
Specificity = True Negatives/ True negatives + False Positives.
Positive Predictive value
liklihood that a positive test actually corresponds to the disease

PPV = TP/(TP+FP)
Negative predictive value
likelihood that a person with a negative result does not have the disease.

NPV = TN/(TN+FN)
How do you calculate Prevalence?
True positives + False Negatives / All outcomes
How do you calculate positive predictive value?
True positives / True positives + False Postives
how do you calculate negative predictive value?
True negatives / True negatives + False Negatives
What factor needs to be considered in order to use Predictive Values?
Prevalence. If prevalence is not know the predictive values will be snapshot estimates rather than statistical information of the general population.
What is the likelihood ratio.
A statistical representation of the selectivity and sensitivity of a test that can be used to compare pre test and post test outcomes via a simple line.
ROC curve
plot the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1- specificity) for different cutoffs of a diagnostic test
Likelihood ratio
liklihood that a given test result would be expected in a patient with the target disorder compared to the liklihood that that same result would be expected in a patient without the target disorder.
An r value of .55 corresponds to what strength of correlation?
strong.
Which r value demonstates a stronger correlation .55 or -.60?
-.60 This is a stronger negative correlation
how does one obtain the coefficient of determination? What does it signify?
r squared - it is the amount of variance explained by a particular variable.
Odds ratio
measures the degree of association of a risk factor with a disease or outcome. It is the ratio of the odds that a case was exposed to the odds that a control was exposed.

Used when actual incidence is not measured
Absolute Risk
synonymous with incidence rate. Number of people developing the disease / number of total people.
Relative Risk
measures how many times exposure to a risk factor increases the risk of contracting a disease. it is the ratio of the absolute risk of disease among those exposed to the absolute risk among those not exposed.

Can only be measured when incidence is measured.
What is the formula for RR?
Relative Risk = AR exposed / AR control
What is RRR?
Relative risk reduction = 1-RR(post treament)
Absolute Risk Reduction
decrease in absolute risk due to treatment expressed as a percentage.
Why is ARR more clinically relevant than RRR?
if the risk of contracting an extremely rare disease is reduced 50% (RRR) it will look more impressive than its ARR which would be 1/200,000,000
how do you calculate NNT
1/ARR
What is NNT?
Number needed to treat, this indicates the number of people needing to receive a treatment in order to produce one positive result.

NNT = 1/Absolute Risk Reduction
Cost of Intervention
NNT x Cost
BICEP!!!
Bias
Internal Validity
Confounding Variables
External Validity
Power
Bias
factors which shift data in a particular direction
Internal Validity
is the assessment measuring what it intends to?
Confounding Variables
variables which the research failed to measure that are affecting results
External Validity
are the studies results valid to the real world
Power
ability to resist type II error.

is the study able to detect an association if it exists?
Compare and Contrast Surrogate Markers and Clinical Outcomes.
Surrogate markers are measurable values indicative of a disease whereas clinical outcomes are more significant like MI or death.
What are the benefits of using composite outcomes?
It increases the chance of finding a statistically significant result in your data.

Increases Power
What is a pitfall of composite outcomes
It can be misleading if the individual components are not eqaully relevant.

For example... if the study indicates a 60% risk of death when death really is rarely or never happening in the study,
How do you grade a study?
With a damn table.