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105 Cards in this Set
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Epidemiology

The study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution


5 Goals of Epidemiology

IDSEP
Identify causes and risk factors Determine extent of disease Study the natural history of disease Evaluate preventative and theraputic interventions Provide foundation for public policy interventions. 

Incidence

Number of new cases occurring in a particular time period.


Incidence rate

the ratio of new cases ocurring in a particular time period to the total number of people AT RISK


Point Prevalence

number of people affected by a disease at a particular point in time.


Period prevalence

The total number of people affected by a disease over a particular time period.


Prevalence rate

ratio of the number of people with a disease to the number of people at risk at a particular time or time period.


Attack Rate

ratio of the number of people contracting a disease to the number of people at risk (expressed as a percentage)


What is the difference between incidence rate and attack rate.

Attack rate is used to describe a short term risk or exposure (Like the seasonal flu)


Mortality rate

ratio of the number of people dying over a period of time to the number of people at risk


What is the effect of preventative measures on Prevalence and Incidence?

decrease both incidence and prevalence


Case Fatality Rate

the ratio of the number of people dying in a particular episode of a disease to the total number of episodes of the disease expressed as a percentage.
Think Pneumonia. 20% of pneumonia cases are fatal for example. 

Treatment of a disease with full recovery will do what to incidence and prevalence?

Prevalence decreases, incidence remains constant.


Theraputic treatment of a disease does what to incidence and prevalence?

Increases prevalence, incidence remains constant.


Why is prevalence not always the best statistic to analyze the success of a treatment?

Prevalence will increase in cases of death prevention or theraputic treatment.


Name the two broad categories of data.

Discrete  groups or ranks
Continuous  intervals or values 

Nominal Data

Discret groups: male/female


Ordinal Data

Discrete data ordered without meaningful intervals.
The good The bad The ugly 

Interval Data

Continuous data with meaningful intervals not centered around an absolute 0. (Temperature in celsius)


Ratio Data

Interval data with an absolute 0


Frequency

absolute number in a particular category


Relative frequency

percentage of values in a particular category when compared to the whole


Cumulative frequency

Total number at or below a threshold. Percentile.


Frequency Polygon

used to display continuous interval data where the midpoint of each subgroup is marked as a point and connected by lines.


Cumulative Frequency polygon

Similar to frequency polygon, but the values are additive and eventually reach a maximum point in the last subgroup.
Great for estimating percentile data. 

What is the benefit of a Kaplan Meier Curve when compared with a normal survival curve?

Kaplan Mayer curves are referred to as censored data. This accounts for new additions or early exits from the study. (For example, a car accident in a heart surgery survival study)
cuts from both numerator and denominator. 

Positive Skew

Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the right signifying a number of extreme values which are higher than the mean.
Mode > Median > Mean 

Right Skew

Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the right signifying a number of extreme values which are higher than the mean.
Mode > Median > Mean 

Left Skew

Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the left signifying a number of extreme values which are lower than the mean.
Mean>Median>Mode 

Negative Skew

Varient of normal distribution with a long tail to the left signifying a number of extreme values which are lower than the mean.
Mean>Median>Mode 

Variance

quantifies the scatter (spread) present in a distribution of values.
average of the squared differences from the mean. 

Standard deviation

square root of the variance
68% of data is within 1 SD 95% within 2 SD 99.7% within 3 SD 

What percentage of data is within 1 SD?

68%


What percentage of data is within 2SD?

95%


What percentage of data is within 3 SD?

99.7%


What percentage of data is above 2SD in a normal distribution?

2.5% ABOVE!!!


What is the probability of two independent events occuring?

P1 X P2


What is the probability that 1 of two possible outcomes occur?

P1 + P2  (P1xP2)
Remember to exclude the possibility of both happening. 

Parametric Tests

focused on population parameters.
require a continuous variable (assumes a normal distribution) Think p values! 

Sampling distribution.

Averages data in a bimodal distribution to create a normal distribution.
Generated by the central limit theorum. 

non parametric tests

can be applied to discrete variables. does not make assumptions about the distribution.


Paired ttest

Parametric  compares mean of a single group before and after treatment


Ttest

Compares means between two groups. (experimental vs placebo)


ANOVA

parametric test  compares means between more than two groups.


Chisquared

non parametric test  a test of proportions.


Type I error

False Positive


Type II error

False Negative


Power

estimate of the ability of a study to detect a false null hypothesis. in other words, to detect a significant difference.
the probability of avoiding a type II error. 

what is the Power of a test with an beta value of .05 that rejects the null hypothesis

95%


Standard error of the mean.

found by dividing the stardard deviation by the square root of the sample size.
Statistically misleading. used to fudge data. 

Randomized Controlled Trials

subjects randomly assigned to interventions groups with a control group involved.


List the three types of Randomization discussed in class and describe them.

Pure random selection  equal probabiltiy of anyone being chosen
Systematic Randomization  every third infant born... Stratified randomization  divide groups to ensure equal representtion of sub groups. 

Intention to Treat Analysis

Each subject is assumed to comply with the study regardless of cooperation.
If a drug has horrible side effects and the subject withdraws, this will be reported as if the patient took the drug. (enables failure to be acocunted for) Typically this study is done in conjunction with a study and not alone. 

Interim analysis

Analyzing data before the scheduled end of the study. done for ethical concerns of the subjects.


Prospective Cohort Studies

observing a cohort not affected by any disease and recording data on their risk factors and future exposure.


What is a major flaw of prospective cohort studies?

It is not effective for rare diseases and expensive.


Inception Cohort

subjects followed soon after developing disease.


Historical Cohort

information regarding the cohort is obtained from previously collected or existing historical data.


Case Control Study

a group affected by a condition is compared with a group unaffected. Retrospective data on risk factors is then collected


Cross Sectional Study

survey a population for simultaneous presence of a disease and potential risk factors.
Prevalence of diabetes in one community compared with another. 

Can causality be determined in a cross sectional study?

No, only suspected since symptoms and risk factors are discovered simultaneously.


Case Report/ Case Series

describes a clinical event in a single patient or series of patients.
no statistical validation is possible. 

Systematic Review

summary of the medical literature regarding a clinical question.
Most powerful study if quality is high. 

What are the potential pitfalls of a systemic review?

Heterogeneity and Publication Bias.


Gold Standard

a test which is considered to be consistently correct and to which other tests can be compared.


Reliability

level of agreement between repeated measurements of the same variable reproducability


Validity

extent to which a test actually tests for what it claims to test.


Sensitivity

ability to detect people who have the disease.
TP/(TP+FN) 

Specificity

Ability to detect people who do not have the disease


what does SPIN refer to?

Tests with high specificity can be used to rule in outcomes


What does SNOUT refer to?

Tests with high sensitivity can be used to rule out outcomes


How do you calculate sensitivity?

Sensitivity = True positives / (True positives + False Negatives)


How do you calculate specificity

Specificity = True Negatives/ True negatives + False Positives.


Positive Predictive value

liklihood that a positive test actually corresponds to the disease
PPV = TP/(TP+FP) 

Negative predictive value

likelihood that a person with a negative result does not have the disease.
NPV = TN/(TN+FN) 

How do you calculate Prevalence?

True positives + False Negatives / All outcomes


How do you calculate positive predictive value?

True positives / True positives + False Postives


how do you calculate negative predictive value?

True negatives / True negatives + False Negatives


What factor needs to be considered in order to use Predictive Values?

Prevalence. If prevalence is not know the predictive values will be snapshot estimates rather than statistical information of the general population.


What is the likelihood ratio.

A statistical representation of the selectivity and sensitivity of a test that can be used to compare pre test and post test outcomes via a simple line.


ROC curve

plot the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1 specificity) for different cutoffs of a diagnostic test


Likelihood ratio

liklihood that a given test result would be expected in a patient with the target disorder compared to the liklihood that that same result would be expected in a patient without the target disorder.


An r value of .55 corresponds to what strength of correlation?

strong.


Which r value demonstates a stronger correlation .55 or .60?

.60 This is a stronger negative correlation


how does one obtain the coefficient of determination? What does it signify?

r squared  it is the amount of variance explained by a particular variable.


Odds ratio

measures the degree of association of a risk factor with a disease or outcome. It is the ratio of the odds that a case was exposed to the odds that a control was exposed.
Used when actual incidence is not measured 

Absolute Risk

synonymous with incidence rate. Number of people developing the disease / number of total people.


Relative Risk

measures how many times exposure to a risk factor increases the risk of contracting a disease. it is the ratio of the absolute risk of disease among those exposed to the absolute risk among those not exposed.
Can only be measured when incidence is measured. 

What is the formula for RR?

Relative Risk = AR exposed / AR control


What is RRR?

Relative risk reduction = 1RR(post treament)


Absolute Risk Reduction

decrease in absolute risk due to treatment expressed as a percentage.


Why is ARR more clinically relevant than RRR?

if the risk of contracting an extremely rare disease is reduced 50% (RRR) it will look more impressive than its ARR which would be 1/200,000,000


how do you calculate NNT

1/ARR


What is NNT?

Number needed to treat, this indicates the number of people needing to receive a treatment in order to produce one positive result.
NNT = 1/Absolute Risk Reduction 

Cost of Intervention

NNT x Cost


BICEP!!!

Bias
Internal Validity Confounding Variables External Validity Power 

Bias

factors which shift data in a particular direction


Internal Validity

is the assessment measuring what it intends to?


Confounding Variables

variables which the research failed to measure that are affecting results


External Validity

are the studies results valid to the real world


Power

ability to resist type II error.
is the study able to detect an association if it exists? 

Compare and Contrast Surrogate Markers and Clinical Outcomes.

Surrogate markers are measurable values indicative of a disease whereas clinical outcomes are more significant like MI or death.


What are the benefits of using composite outcomes?

It increases the chance of finding a statistically significant result in your data.
Increases Power 

What is a pitfall of composite outcomes

It can be misleading if the individual components are not eqaully relevant.
For example... if the study indicates a 60% risk of death when death really is rarely or never happening in the study, 

How do you grade a study?

With a damn table.
