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11 Cards in this Set

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What is Epidemiology?
Is the study of the distribution (descriptive) and determinants (analytic)of health related states and events in specificed populations, and the application of this study to control health problems.
Epidemilogy is concern with:
frequencies and types of illnesses and injuries in groups of people. Factors that influence the distribution of disease.

Who gets sick and Why.
Why study populations?
There are two reasons:
1. The ultimate goal is to improve the health status of populations.
2. a population is requied to make causal inferences about relationships between certain factors and disease.
Epidemiology assusmes that:
1. Occurrance of human disease is not random in populations.
2. Systematic investigation of disease in different populations, various locations, at different times will help identigy preventive (protective) factors.
3. Modification or risk factor will lead to change in the epidemiology of disease.
What information does epidemiology provides necessary for prevention?
1. identify risk groups
2. identify factors that may put them at increased risk.
3. design prevention interventions.
what are the three strategies for disease prevention?
1. Primary:prevents disease before it occurs.
examples:
-educational programs
-regulations to reduce pollution
-vaccination and immunizations
2. Secondary: reduce the progress of disease, occurs during the pathogenesis phase of the natural history of the disease.
examples
-breast self-examination
-mammography
-occult blood test
3. Tertiary: activities to limit disability from disease.
examples
-rehabilitation
-physical therapy
What are the five objectives of epidemiology?
Etiology & Risk Assessment:
identify the etiology or the cause of a disease and the factors that increase the person's risk of the disease.
2. Assess & Monitor Disease Burden.
-Measeure the extent of diease found in the community.
-planning health service and resources
-training healthcare providers
-surveilance (of the impact of risk factor reduction and treatment)
3. Natural History & Prognosis
-fundamental concepts for studying and controlling disease
-define, quantitatively, the natural history of a disease from development to signs and symptoms to death. (tells us what to expect)
-develop interventions to cure or slow progression of the disease.
4. Evaluation
-evaluate new and existing preventive and therapeutic measures and healthcare delivery (health services) on health outcomes.
5. Shape Policy
-provide the evidence based foundation for developing public policy and making regulatory decisions to protect the health of populations, the health of the public.
What are host factors?
-Person's geneotype liek dark skin reduces sunburn
-nutritional status
-body mass index
-immune system
What are agent factors?
-biologic agents
-allergens, infectious organisms
-chemical agents
-chemical toxins (lead), dusts.
-physical agents
-cold, heat
What are enviornmental factors?
-social, political, and ecomnomic factors.
-crowed homes and schools
-policies and reulations affect environment
What are vector factors?
-like insects animals that help transmit disease
-mosquitoes and malaria
-ticks associated with Lyme disase
-raccoons and rabies
-but humans and other objects can be vectors
-contaminated needles
-heroin vendors