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6 Cards in this Set

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Effect Modification
Effect of the exposure on the outcome differs depending on whether another variable (effect modifier) is present
Synergy
Joint effect of two exposures is greater than prediction for each individual exposure
Inhibition
Joint effect of two exposures is less then predicted based on each individual exposure
Effect Mofification and AUC
If there is effect modification the AUC for a lab value would be different. Eg. AUC IS different for young vs. older subjects in benzodiazepines and psychomotor impairment
Recommendations for Finding effect modifications
1) Plan a separate study a prioriy for that purpose
2) Unless overwhelming contrary evidence, assume overall findings of a study apply to all subgroups
Two main problems with finding effect modification
1) Inadequate power in subgroups
2) Multiple comparisons (some findings will be significant by chance alone)