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### 32 Cards in this Set

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 Relative risk = Iold/Inew Odds ratio= Oddsold/Oddsnew Absolute risk reduction Iold - Inew NNT = 1/(Iold - Inew) OR 1/ARR What is efficacy? How is it calculated? how much of the risk in control group is reduced by the new treatment. ARR/Iold The odds ratio is an alternative to ___ RR You can use relative or absolute measures of effect. Explain and when is each one useful. Relative are very informative for causation strength. Absolute is very informative with regards to the total risk reduction associated with a treatment Do relative or absolute measures measure the magnitude? absolute What allows you to compare both relative and absolute measures? efficacy Relative or absolute? 1. most relevant for etiology. 2. attributable risk. 3. most relevant to evaluate actual treatment/risk to exposed individuals. 1. relative. 2. absolute 3. absolute why can't you only analyze the treatment of actual treatment when there is crossover? violate principles of random besides upholding randomization, why is it important to use intention to treat for analysis? because crossover may be heavily due to adverse effects of treatment List the three main limitations of randomized clinical controlled trials. not always feasible of ethical. limited generalizability. statistical uncertainty what is an alternative to incidence? to relative risk? explain NNT. compare relative, absolute, and combination factors. think about when each is relative. good work. what is a parameter When you want to know if one treatment is better, you want to know by how much this treatment is better! is standard error bigger or smaller if you have a big sample size smaller inverse relationship describe type one error when you think there is a difference when in fact there is not associated with false positive and p value describe type II error when you think there is no difference when in reality there IS! associated with false negative and beta probability is type I or type II error more common? why? type I error is more common because there is only one null hypothesis and many alternative hypotheses! what is the null hypothesis in the case of ARR? In RR? 0 1 how do you account for type I error? in your pvalue give the wording for the p value the probability that the difference in our findings this large or larger from the null hypothesis would only occur __% of the time IF the null were in fact true in order to find your pvalue what do you do to z? you double it give a definition for confidence interval the range of values in which you would find your mean parameter 95% of the time what can the CI NOT include if you want to say your null is untrue you can't include your null hypothesis value what three things does statistical power depend on? magnitude of findings set alpha value sample size how do you caluclate chi square sum of ....(O-E)^2 / E how do you calculate SD? like this! how do you relate a p value and a z score? Find z. Double it. This is P!