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42 Cards in this Set

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Health --> ______ --> ______ --> death and disability
risk factors
disease
name the upstream determinants of the evans and stoddart model
behavioral factors
social environment
built environment
genetic makeup
Describe population health science
body of scientific disciplines interested in the study of the distribution, determinants, and means for the control of health and disease states in the population. Includes medicine, nursing, pharmacy, clinical reserach, health services research, etc etc
what is health as defined by the WHO
state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
draw the disease causation continuum
draw the disease causation continuum for CVD
draw an example of the disease causation continuum from smoking to lung cancer
draw the wisconsin model
The epidemiologic triad includes host, agent, and environment. Give examples of each of these categories.
host- age, sex, marital status, previous disease, cultural habits, job

Agents-- biologic, chemical, physical, nutritional

Environment-- temperature, humidity, altitude, housing, crowding, water, radiation, air pollution, noise, advertising, marketing!
Definition. study of how disease is distributed in population and the factors that influence or determine this distribution
epidemiology
Describe the natural history of disease.
state of pathological onset
presymptomatic stage
clinical manifest of disease
outcome
What do you call the time period between the pathological onset and the first symptom?
incubation period
what is an epidemic?
occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, health related behavior, or health related event clearly in EXCESS of normal expectancy
Name the determinants of disease etiology and natural history
causes (risk factors)
prognostic factors
evaluating treatment
define incidence
The number of NEW cases of a disease in a population during a specified period of time
define mortality
incidence of death
define prevalence
number of existing cases of disease in a population at some point in time
define endemic
constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area of a population group
define pandemic
epidemic occurring over a very wide area, usually affecting a large proportion of a population
define epidemic
occurrence in community or region of cases of an illness, health related behavior, or health related event clearly in excess of normal expectancy
Draw the 2x2 table
draw the epidemiologic triad
what is an epidemic curve?
histogram representing times of clinical disease onset in individuals
who is the father of epidemiology
john snow
incidence =
prevalence =
What are the main purposes of controlled trials
to balance the groups according to measurable and unmeasurable factors and probable confoudning features. To avoid bias from stass. To provide basis for statistical testing.
name the main features of controlled trials
randomization
blinding
placebo
when is blinding really important
for subjective outcomes
What are three types of controlled trials?
FDA therapeutic trials
according to type of intervention
according to patient allocation
What are some examples of controlled trials according to patient allocation
parallel
crossover-- one group begins with therapy A and then moves to therapy B
Factorial -- when more than one drug is tested
what are the benefits of a crossover controlled trial?
each patient is his or her own control
what is case fatality rate?
incidence of death among people with the disease
state the steps of kaplan meier approach.
1. Sort the survival times from longest to shortest
2. For each time of occurrence of an event, compute the conditional survival time
3. For each time of occurrence of an event, compute the cumulative survival. **Multiply all prior conditional probabilities of survival at each time point.
what does 210.2 per person year mean?
1 person will have this occurrence 210 times per year
Odds =
prob/(1-prob)
true or ralse. You can use incidence, mortaility, or prevalance to calculate the odds
true!
end lecture 4
lecture 4
If the probability of an event is 50%, what are the odds?
33%
explain what is going on.
Person years-- conditional probability of kaplain meier.
calculate the person years for one year.
what are the odds?