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98 Cards in this Set

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extravascular blood coagulum or postmortem intravascular coagulum
Blood Clot
acute strain or hypertrophy of the right ventricle caused by a disorder of the lungs or of the pulmonary blood vessels
Cor pulmonale
identifies the presence of d-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, as an indicator of active fibrinolysis
D-dimer Test
hemorrhage larger than 1.0cm that appears in soft tissue or skin due to trauma
Ecchymosis
a mass that travels through the bloodstream and lodges so as to obstruct or occlude a blood vessel; can be a thromboembolus or any material that can gain access to the circulation
Embolus
a nosebleed
epistaxis
an insoluble protein that creates a network of interlacing fibers that traps platelets and blood cells to form a fibrin plug
fibrin
inactive, soluble form of fibrin that can be found in circulating blood; produced in the liver
Fibrinogen
the enzymatic breakdown of fibrin by plasmin
Fibrinolysis
accumulation of blood in a joint or joint cavity
hemarthrosis
vomiting of blood
hematemesis
bright red blood in the stool indicating a lower GI tract bleeding disorder such as hemorrhoids
hematochezia
extravascular blood coagulum
hematoma
coughing of blood from the lungs
hemoptysis
process of tissue necrosis secondary to abrupt hypoxia/anoxia; liquefactive necrosis occurs in brain tissue and coagulative necrosis occurs everywhere else
infarction
dark “tarry” blood in the stool indicating an upper GI tract bleeding disorder
melena
acute strain or hypertrophy of the right ventricle caused by a disorder of the lungs or of the pulmonary blood vessels
Cor pulmonale
identifies the presence of d-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, as an indicator of active fibrinolysis
D-dimer Test
hemorrhage larger than 1.0cm that appears in soft tissue or skin due to trauma
Ecchymosis
a mass that travels through the bloodstream and lodges so as to obstruct or occlude a blood vessel; can be a thromboembolus or any material that can gain access to the circulation
Embolus
a nosebleed
epistaxis
an insoluble protein that creates a network of interlacing fibers that traps platelets and blood cells to form a fibrin plug
fibrin
inactive, soluble form of fibrin that can be found in circulating blood; produced in the liver
Fibrinogen
the enzymatic breakdown of fibrin by plasmin
Fibrinolysis
accumulation of blood in a joint or joint cavity
hemarthrosis
vomiting of blood
hematemesis
bright red blood in the stool indicating a lower GI tract bleeding disorder such as hemorrhoids
hematochezia
extravascular blood coagulum
hematoma
coughing of blood from the lungs
hemoptysis
process of tissue necrosis secondary to abrupt hypoxia/anoxia; liquefactive necrosis occurs in brain tissue and coagulative necrosis occurs everywhere else
infarction
dark “tarry” blood in the stool indicating an upper GI tract bleeding disorder
melena
a venous embolus that gains access into the systemic circulation through a right-to-left shunt in the heart
Paradoxic Embolus
pinpoint-sized(1-2mm) hemorrhage that usually occurs in clusters; due to thrombocytopenia or endothelial cell injury
Petechia
the active form of plasminogen, a protein produced in the liver that is activated by urokinase and tPA; cleaves fibrinogen and fibrin into split products in thrombolysis
Plasmin
hemorrhage smaller than 1.0cm usually due to vascular disorders
Purpura
the restoration of the lumen of a blood vessel following thrombotic occlusion due to a combination of fibrinolytic activity and endothelial proliferation
Recanalization
a large pulmonary embolus that saddles the pulmonary trunk as it divides into the right and left main pulmonary arteries, thus blocking both branches
Saddle Embolus
inadequate perfusion and resultant hypoxia of body tissues
shock
the formation, presence, or development of a thrombus
Thrombosis
an exaggerated form of dysplasia that can be observed in malignant cells that includes varying degrees of cytologic and nuclear atypia, alteration in the shape and size of the cell and/or nucleus, loss of cell orientation, and abnormal mitoses
Anaplasia
accumulation in the lungs from inhaled smoke or coal dust; miner’s lung
Anthracosis
– a distinctive form of cell death that involves individual cells or small clusters of; active, energy-dependent process under strict regulatory control that does not illicit an inflammatory response
Apoptosis
small, membrane-bound segment of a cell that results from apoptosis; phagocytized by macrophages via receptor binding
Apoptotic Body
cellular destruction caused by endogenous enzymes
autolysis
formed by fusion of a lysosome with a cytoplasmic structure to digest intracellular material
Autophagic Vacoule
a family of intracellular proteolytic enzymes that mediate the apoptotic process present within the cytosol in their inactive form (procaspaces)
Caspaces
destructive metabolism in which complex materials are broken down to release energy
Catabolism
the finely-dispersed state in which DNA can be found in the nucleus of a resting (non-dividing) cell
chromatin
to make a crackling sound due to air bubbles beneath the surface of the skin
crepitation
regulatory protein released by cells of the immune system that act as intercellular mediators of the immune response
cytokine
an integral part of the cytoplasm that allows for cell motility and maintains cell structure, consisting of microfilaments, cell-type specific intermediate filaments, and microtubules
cytoskeleton
the amorphous ground substance of the cytoplasm consisting of water, nutrients, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; also the location of cellular organelles
cytosol
the cause or origin of a disease
Etiology
ferric iron-apoferritin protein complex involved in normal iron absorption and storage
Ferritin
damaged vascular endothelium increases vascular permeability, leading to edema and blister formation
Frostbite
cellular destruction caused by exogenous enzymes
Heterolysis
digestion within a cell of a substance taken into the cell by phagocytosis from the outside environment
Heterophagy
ability to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting physiological processes
Homeostasis
chromatin dissolution, definitive morphologic evidence of irreversible cell injury and death
Karyolysis
chromatin fragmentation, definitive morphologic evidence of irreversible cell injury and death
Karyorrhexis
generally composed of epithelial cells, this tissue is the distinctive (often functional) cells of an organ
Parenchyma
the development of a diseased condition
Pathogenesis
small, concentrically laminated sphere of calcium, representing a calcium deposit
Psammoma Body
dense chromatin condensation, definitive morphologic evidence of irreversible cell injury and death
Pyknosis
remnant of material that lysosomes are unable to digest found in the cytoplasm
Residual Body
generally composed of mesenchymal connective tissue cells, this tissue provides the structural framework of an organ
Stroma
diffuse, generalized edema throughout the body
Anasarca
accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity due to increased hydrostatic pressure within the portal venous system
Ascites
gross appearance of the lungs due to fibrous thickening of the alveolar walls
Brown Induration
bluish discoloration of tissue
cyanosis
the movement of blood cells through intact capillary walls into the surrounding tissue
diapedesis
difficulty breathing, often associated with lung or heart disease
dyspnea
accumulation of excess fluid in cells or tissues; generally starts in loose connective tissue, so one of the first signs of edema is puffiness around the eyes
Edema
the seeping of a fluid into a body cavity or tissue
effusion
fatty change of peripheral periportal hepatocytes resulting in a mottled red-brown and yellow-tan gross appearance of the liver
Nutmeg Liver
discomfort in breathing when laying down; this is measured by the number of pillows required for a patient to breathe and sleep at night
Orthopnea
abnormal respiratory sounds associated with pulmonary edema
rales/crackles
localized collection of pus associated with liquefaction necrosis
abscess
any protein that increases in concentration by at least 25% with inflammation; includes C-reactive protein, complement, and fibrinogen
Acute Phase Protein
substance that may cause the release of histamine and result in hypersensitivity
Anaphylatoxin
polypeptide that acts as an intercellular mediator of the immune response
cytokine
localized collection of pus in a natural anatomic cavity
Empyema
a non-epithelial cell that has similar characteristics derived from a macrophage
Epitheloid Cell
the rate at which RBCs settle in blood with anticoagulant
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
formed by a syncytium or fusion of epithelioid cells
Giant Cell
increase in the total number of granulocytes in the blood
Granulocytosis
consists of small, nodular collections of epithelioid cells; often contain giant cells
Granuloma
circulating monocyte in the resting state (not reacting to a stimulus)
Histiocyte
glycoproteins found on cell surfaces that promote adhesion of cells to other cells or to extracellular material
Integrins
proteolytic enzyme of the kinin system that cleaves high molecular-weight kininogen to bradykinin
Kallikrein
extreme elevations of WBC count
Leukemoid Reaction
increase in the total number of circulating leukocytes in peripheral blood
Leukocytosis
abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the bloodstream
Lymphocytosis
chemical mediators produced by lymphocytes that are involved in lymphocyte recruitment and proliferation and other aspects of inflammation/immunity
Lymphokines
circulating monocyte reacting to stimulus
Macrophage
enzymes secreted by monocytes including acid hydrolases, neutral proteases, chemotactic factors, arachidonic acid metabolites, free radicals, and growth promoting factors
Monokine
antibodies or products of the complement system (particularly C3b) that attaches to foreign material and makes it more susceptible to phagocytosis
Opsonin
sugar-binding lectins found on cell surfaces that promote adhesion of cells to other cells and mediate their migration to sites of injury or inflammation
Selectins