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61 Cards in this Set

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Controls organs which are not under our voluntary control
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Manages our physiology by regulating cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
Autonomic Nervous System
Effect is either to increase or decrease the intrinsic activity
ANS - Autonomic Nervous System
Many types of smooth muscle are spontaneously active and they contract rhythmically without ANS input. T/F
True
ANS has 2 neurons in its Efferent Pathway...
Preganglionic Neuron and Postganglionic Neuron
The cell body is in the CNS (brain or spinal cord)
Preganglionic Neuron
The cell body is in an Autonomic Ganglion
Postganglionic Neuron
Controls organs which are not under our voluntary control
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
The Autonomic nervous system manages our physiology by regulating....
Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
How many neurons in the ANS Efferent pathway?
Two
The cell body of this neuron is in the CNS (brain or spinal cord)
Preganglionic Neuron
Ganglions are in
PNS
The cell body is in an Autonomic Ganglion
Postganglionic Neuron
Postganglionic axon extends from...
Autonomic ganglion to Target Tissue
Neurons that conduct impulses INTO CNS
Sensory/Afferent
Neurons that carry impulses OUT of CNS
Motor/Efferent
Integrate the activity of the nervous system and are located entirely inside CNS
Association/Interneurons
The two divisions of the ANS
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
The two divisions of the ANS usually have ______ effects
Antagonistic
Mediates Fight, flight, and stress reactions...
Sympathetic
Mediates Rest and Digest Reactions
Parasympathetic
Thoracolumbar division refers to...
The Sympathetic Division
The preganglionic fibers exit spinal cor from T1 to L2 in the ANS Division
Sympathetic or Thoracolumbar Division.
Sympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse with...
Postganglionic neurons in the paravertebral ganlglia
Form chain of interconnected ganglia parallel to the spinal cord.
Paravertevral Ganglia of the sympathetic division
Sympathetic division is characterized by...
Divergence and Convergence
Preganglionic fibers branch to synapse with number of postganlionic neurons..
Divergence
Postganglionic neurons receive synaptic input from large number of preganglionic fibers
Convergence
The sympathetic division acts mostly as one unit, termed _____ becuase of _____
Mass Activation, Divergence and convergence
Collateral ganglion
Some preganglionic fibers do not synapse in paravertebral ganglion but go to outlying collateral ganglion
The adrenal medulla is located...
in adrenal gland on top of kidney.
Secretory cells of adrenal medulla..
Appear to be modified postganglionic neurons
Adrenal Medulla releases....
85% Epinephrine
15% Norepinephrine
When is the adrenal medulla stimulated?
During mass activation
Another name for the parasympathetic division
Craniosacral division...because long preganglionic fibers originate in midbrain, medulla oblongata, pons, and S2-S4
Where do Long preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic synapse
In terminal ganglia located next to or withing target organ.
Postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic have...
short axons that innervate target organ
Where are most parasympathetic fibers carried?
On the long Vagus Nerve
Vagus Nerve innervates...
Heart, lungs, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine, and upper half of the large intestine.
Preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic innervate...
lower half of large intestine, rectum, urinary and reproductive systems
Acetylcholine is released by...
both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionics
Parasympathetic Postganglionics release:
Acetylchloine called cholinergeic synapses
Most sympathetic postganglionics release:
Norepinephrin (noradenaline) called adrenergic synapses...a small number release ACh
Causes both excitation or inhibition depending on tissue because of different types of receptors for same NT
Adrenergic Stimulation
Two major types of adrenergic stimullation
alpha and beta
Drugs that promote actions of a NT
Agonists
Where is Ach used at in Cholinergic Stimulation?
All motor neuron synapses on skeletal muscle. All preganglionics (symp. and parasymp.). Plus Parasympathetic Postgaglionics.
2 Subtypes of Cholinergic Receptors.
Nicotinic and Muscarinic.
Nicotinic
Cholinergic receptor stimulated by Nicotine and Blocked by Curare.
Muscarinic
Cholinergic Receptor stimulated by muscarine and blocked by Atropine
Some postganglionics synapses do not use norepinephrine or Ach as NT and they are called
Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic.
Nonadrenergic/Noncholinergic use...
ATP, Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), or Nitric Oxide (NO)
What does nitric oxide do
produses smooth muscle relaxation in many tissues (brain)
Most visceral organs receive what type of innervation...
Dual Innervation ...supplied by both sympathetic and parasymp.
How is regulation acheiv ed in organs without dual innervation?
By increasing or decreasing firing rate.
Organs that recieve ONLY Sympathetic Innervation...
Adrenal medulla, arrector pili muscle, sweat glands, most blood vessels.
Most directly controls activity of ANS
Medulla
Has centers for control of Cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, reproductive, and digestive systems.
Medulla
Has centers for control of body temp, hunger, and thirst...and can regulate medulla
Hypothalamus
Responsible for Visceral Responses that reflect emotional states
Limbic System
Also influence ANS...
Cerebral cortex and cerebellum