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25 Cards in this Set

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Reactant
Element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction.
Product
Element or compound produced by a chemical reaction.
Catalyst
Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
Enzyme
A special protein that acts as a biological catalyst.
Eukaryote
Organsim whose cell contains a nucleus.
Prokaryote
Organsim whose cells do not contain a nucleus.
Nucleus
Structure that contains DNA and controls the cell's activities.
Cytoplasm
Material inside the cell membrane (excluding the nucleus).
Ribosome
Structure in the cell on which proteins are made.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
An internal membrane system in cells that acts as a pathway, produces lipids, and contains ribosomes.
Golgi apparatus
Cell structure that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins.
Lysosome
Cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down materials in a cell.
Vacuole
Cell organelle that stores water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Mitochondria
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are easier for the cell to use.
Chloroplast
Organelle found in plant cells that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
Cell Membrane
Thin, flexible barrier around a cell that regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Cell Wall
Strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.
Diffusion
Process by which molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Active Transport
Energy-requiring porcess that moves material across a membrane.
ATP
One of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy.
Photosynthesis
Process by which plants use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Cellular Respiration
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Mitosis
The part of cell division during which the nucleus divides
Cell Cycle
Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.