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61 Cards in this Set

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Hammurabi
Ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for codification of law [Code of Hammurabi: system of strict justice]
Buddha
"the Enlightened." The Prince Siddhartha Gautama. tried and rejected first the life of luxury and then a life of poverty and achieved enlightenment and began to teach.
Confucius
Chinese philosopher whose teachings are called Confucianism duty and humanity; relationships
Laozi
"old master" created Daoism Don't interfere with nature, "go with the flow"
Socrates
Sculptor who liked philosophy. Socratic method: Question and answer format to get students to understand things themselves.
Plato
Questioned reality. Constructed ideal state in which people were divided into 3 basic groups. Kings, warriors, the rest.
Aristotle
Analyzed things based on observation. Wanted effective form of government no directing human affairs.
Julius Ceaser
Roman military and political leader. He was instrumental in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who stopped the persecution of Christians and in 324 made Christianity the official religion of the empire; in 330 he moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople
Jesus
teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity
Mansa Musa
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East
Charlemagne
powerful ruler of the Frankish peoples revival of the Western Empire was the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire. Expanded Frankish kingdom
Justinian
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians; codified Roman law in 529
Machiavelli
analyzed how the prince could preserve and expand the state's power. Machiavelli ignored both classical theory--state should be based on moral norms apprehended by reason--and medieval theory--earthly realm should be like the standards revealed by God
Martin Luther
Led the protestant reformation
Ferdinand Magellan
First to circumnavigate the world.
Aztecs
Native Americans who occupied the region around Mexico City at the time of the Spanish Conquest.
Incas
empire located in South America used conquest and peaceful assimilation to incorporate in their empire a large portion of western South America
Peter the Great
Russian absolute monarch czar. Westernized Russia. Drafted soldiers. Expanded Russia gaining St. Petersburg.
John Locke
Argued against rule of one person. Said society was organized. Humans had natural rights.
Thomas Hobbes
Claimed society was unorganized, human life poor nasty and brutish. People had to make social contract agreeing to form a state.
Adam Smith
Believed state should not interfere withe economy. Government has 3 roles: Protect society, project from injustice, maintain public works.
Galileo Galilee
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries
Montesquieu
French political theorist who analyzed different government constitutions and developed the theory upon which the separation of powers is based.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Presented social contract. Entire societies agreed to be governed by general will.
Louis XVI
king of France from 1774 to 1792; his failure to grant reforms led to the French Revolution; he and his queen were guillotined
Napoleon Bonaparte
General of French Revolution, French president made peace with catholic church, created civil code, developed bureaucracy
Count Camillo di Cavour
Prime minister of Italy. pursued policy of economic expansion that increased government revenues. alliance with French emperor. helped unify Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot raised army, took over territories in Italy, gave lands to king and unified.
Count Otto von Bismarck
Prime minister of Prussia. helped raise army. helped collect land for Germany. helped unify Germany.
Woodrow Wilson
led the United States in World War I and secured the formation of the League of Nations
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination by Gavrilo Princip in, Austria, precipitated the Austrian declaration of war against Serbia which triggered World War I.
Neveille Chaberlain
British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom had policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany.
Juan Peron; Gamal Nasser; Yasir Arafat
Juan:President of Argentina, increased industrialization.
Gamal:Controlled Egyptian Government. Seizes Suez canal
Yasir:launched attacks on isreal
theocracy
government by divine right
nirvana
Buddhism; ultimate reality, meeting with Great World Soul
dharma
Hinduism; requires people to do their duty
caste system
Social Classes
Brahmans
Kshatriyas
Vaisyas
Sudras
Untouchables
covenant
signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action
4 noble truths
Ordinary life has suffering
suffering caused by desires
suffering ends by ending desires
end desires with middle path
Confucianism
system of political and ethical ideas intended to help restore order to society in confusion
Daoism
teaches will of Heaven followed by inaction
disciples
one who is both follower and student
filial piety
duty of family to subordinate needs to male head of family
Islam
religious faith of Muslims
Allah
Muslim name for God used in the Holy Qur'an
hajj
Annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca.
Ramadan
month of fasting
Theology
study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truth
Inquisition
office of the Roman Catholic Church charged with suppressing heresy.
Eastern Orthodox Church
One of the three main branches of Christianity
heresy
a belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion
indulgence
remission of the temporal punishment due to God for sin
salvation
the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
Puritans
members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation.
Deism
belief that God exists but is not involved in the world. It maintains that God created all things and set the universe in motion and is no longer involved in its operation
Causes of French Revolution
Political and Social Inequalities
Bankruptcy of the Government
Influence of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution
Outbreak of revolution 1789
tension prior to WWI
-Imperalism
-nationalism
-alliance system
Central Powers were
Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria
Axis Powers were
Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Empire of Japan