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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the idea that matter can't be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
Law of Conservation of Matter
the idea that energy can't be created or destroyed
Law of Conservation of Energy
an increase in the size and/or number of cells in an organism results in what
growth
when cells get a specific job to do
cell differentiation or cell specialization
the series of changes an organism undergoes as it matures to its adult form
embryonic development
Name some of the stages in the embryonic development of an animal.
egg - zygote - morula - blastula - gastrula
the smallest living unit of an organism - All living things are made of what living unit?
cells
What two things do cells provide for living things?
structure and function
the selectively permeable barrier around a cell
cell membrane
a strong structural layer around some cells like plants, some bacteria and fungi - outside the membrane
cell wall
the control center of a cell containing the genetic material
nucleus
the genetic code is made of this chemical
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
the chemical that reads the DNA and builds the proteins
RNA - ribonucleic acid
the organelle where photosynthesis occurs in plant cells
chloroplast
the primary pigment in a plant chloroplast - green
chlorophyll
the organelle in a cell where cellular respiration occurs
mitochondrion
the chemical reaction occurring in a chloroplast
photosynthesis
the chemical reaction in a mitochondrion
cellular respiration
the equation for photosynthesis
carbon dioxide plus water in sunlight produces glucose (sugar/carbohydrate) plus oxygen
the equation for cellular respiration
glucose (sugar/carbohydrate) plus oxygen produces carbon dioxide plus water
the cell organelle where protein synthesis occurs
ribosome
Of what chemical is a ribosome composed?
ribosomal RNA
Where are ribosomes made?
nucleolus
What codes for RNA?
DNA
(DNA - RNA - protein)
a storage space in a cell
vacuole

food vacuole - food
water vacuole - water
a cell without a nuclear membrane or other membrane-bound organelles
prokaryote
a cell with a nuclear membrane and other membrane-bound cell parts like ER, Golgi...
eukaryote
What is the only type of living thing with prokaryote cells?
bacteria
What type of living things have eukaryotic cells?
animals, plants, fungi, and protists
Give some examples of specialized cells and their functions.
red blood cells - carry oxygen
white blood cells - fight infection, nerve cells - send messages, muscle cells - contract to move you
the organelle in a cell that provides energy for cell processes
mitochondrion
Name three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.
light intensity
availability of raw materials (CO2 and H2O) and temperature
How are the mitochondrion and chloroplast similar?
both involve energy
both convert energy - chloroplasts produce carbohydrates (food energy) using energy from sunlight, and mitochondria release energy for use by the cell (ATP)
How are photosynthesis and respiration complementary processes?
one uses the products of the other
How are photosynthesis and respiration necessary for life on Earth?
photosynthesis makes oxygen that many organisms breathe in to burn their food, and respiration produces CO2 needed by plants for photosynthesis
Compare and contrast the structure and function of the cell wall and the cell membrane.
cell wall - structure, plant cell walls are made of cellulose fibers
cell membrane - transport, made of a lipid bilayer, proteins, and carbohydrates
What cell parts, in order, are involved in producing proteins?
nucleus, ribosomes, rough ER, Golgi apparatus
usable energy for cell processes like active transport, DNA synthesis
ATP
Name the four major organic compounds and their functions.
carbohydrates - burned to make ATP during cell respiration
lipids - stored energy, insulation, barrier in cell membranes
proteins - structure and function of cells
nucleic acids - genetic material
Where do living organisms (autotrophs and heterotrophs) get their energy?
autotrophs - make organic compounds by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
heterotrophs - by eating other organisms and breaking down their organic compounds
organic catalysts in cells that allow chemical reactions to proceed at a lower activation energy
enzymes
What factors affect enzyme activity?
temperature, pH, chemical concentrations
What is a catalyst?
a chemical that speeds up a reaction without being involved in the reaction, can be reused
the movement of materials in and out of a cell
cell transport
the two major types of material transport in and out of a cell
active and passive transport
What are two differences between active and passive cell transport?
active - uses energy, moves against the concentration gradient from low to high concentration
passive - doesn't use energy to move materials with the concentration gradient from high to low concentration
organic catalysts in cells that allow chemical reactions to proceed at a lower activation energy
enzymes
What factors affect enzyme activity?
temperature, pH, chemical concentrations
What is a catalyst?
a chemical that speeds up a reaction without being involved in the reaction, can be reused
doesn't use energy to move materials with the concentration gradient from high to low concentration
passive transport
uses energy, moves against the concentration gradient from low to high concentration
active transport
Name three examples of active transport.
ion pumps (sodium-potassium pump)
endocytosis
exocytosis
Name three examples of passive transport.
diffusion
osmosis
facilitated diffusion
Why is it important that cell membranes are selectively permeable?
let in needed materials like nutrients and oxygen and let out wastes
What is homeostasis, and how does the cell membrane help a cell maintain it?
a constant internal environment - cell can take in materials it needs and get rid of wastes
What happens when a cell can't maintain homeostasis?
illness - ultimately death
Name four factors that affect the rate of transport.
temperature
size of molecules
concentration gradient
solubility
How can osmosis affect cell shape?
water can flow in and make a cell swell and rupture, or water can flow out to make a cell shrink
Toward what does water flow by osmosis?
Water flows toward the higher solute concentration.
What molecule makes up the biggest percentage of a living organism?
water
Give three reasons why water so important to living things.
helps maintain body temperature
helps with chemical reactions
helps maintain cell shape (osmosis)
reproduction with one parent and one set of DNA
asexual reproduction
Give two examples of asexual reproduction.
binary fission in bacteria
budding
What is the advantage of asexual reproduction?
can produce many offspring in a short time
What type of environment would make asexual reproduction advantageous?
stable good environment
reproduction with two parents and two sets of DNA
sexual reproduction
What is the advantage of sexual reproduction?
genetic diversity/options for survival
What type of environment would make sexual reproduction advantageous?
changing or poor environment
Give two different examples of sexual reproduction.
fertilization (egg + sperm = zygote)
pollination (pollen + ovule = seed)
when the DNA is copied exactly during the s phase of interphase
DNA replication
Why is the DNA replicated prior to cell division?
so that each daughter cell would get a copy
What are the two main stages of cell division, and what does each divide?
mitosis - chromossomes and nucleus
cytokinesis - cytoplasm
What are the four stages of mitosis in order, and what major event happens in each phase?
prophase - chromosomes form from chromatin
metaphase - chromosomes line up at equator
anaphase - sister chromatids are pulled apart
telophase - two daughter nuclei are formed