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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
activation energy
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
active site
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds
active transport
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate)An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
calorie
The amount of energy that raises the temperature of water by 1 degree Celsius.
cellular respiration
The aerobic harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules.
chemical energy
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy.
conservation of energy
The principle that energy can neither be created nor destroyed
diffusion
The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
endocytosis
The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle.
energy
The capacity to do work (to move matter against an opposing force).
energy coupling
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
entropy
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
enzyme
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
exocytosis
The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
active site
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
allosteric regulation
The binding of a molecule to a protein that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
anabolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
bioenergetics
The flow of energy through an animal, taking into account the energy stored in the food it consumes, the energy used for basic functions, activity, growth, reproduction, and regulation, and the energy lost to the environment as heat or in waste.
catabolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
catalyst
A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
chemical energy
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy.
coenzyme
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
cofactor
Any non-protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
cooperativity
An interaction of the constituent subunits of a protein whereby a conformational change in one subunit is transmitted to all the others.
endergonic reaction
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
energy
The capacity to do work (to move matter against an opposing force).
energy coupling
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
entropy
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
enzyme
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
enzyme-substrate complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
exergonic reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy.
exergonic reaction
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
first law of thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
free energy
The portion of a system’s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system. The change in free energy of a system is calculated by the equation ΔG = ΔH - T Δs, where T is absolute temperature.
free energy of activation
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called activation energy.
heat
The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
induced fit
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
kinetic energy
The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
metabolic pathway
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway).
metabolism
The totality of an organism’s chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways.
non-competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
phosphorylated
Referring to a molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group.
potential energy
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement.
substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
thermodynamics
(1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.