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48 Cards in this Set

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salivary amylase
salivary glands, mouth

hydrolyzes starch to maltose
pancreatic amylase
pancreas, small intestine

hydrolyzes starch to maltose
maltase/sucrase/lactase
intestinal glands, small intestine

hydrolyzes:
maltose to 2 glucose
sucrose to glucose + fructose
lactose to glucose + galactose
gastric juice
gastric glands, stomach

secretions of chief cells (pepsin) and parietal cells (HCl)
pepsin
gastric glands, stomach

hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds
gastrin
pyloric glands, stomach

released when food enters stomach, stimulates gastric glands to secrete more HCl and gastric juice, stimulates stomach muscle contractions to churn food
secretin
intestinal glands, small intestine

released by duodenum in response to acidic chyme, stimulates pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice (bicarbonate neutralizes acid)
pancreatic juice
pancreas, small intestine

alkaline fluid with bicarbonate that helps maintain small intestinal pH by acid neutralization to promote enzyme function, includes proteases and enzymes that digest lipids and carbohydrates
cholecystokinin
duodenum

secreted in response to chyme to stimulate pancreatic enzyme and bile release
enterogastrone
duodenum

secreted when chyme is very fatty to inhibit stomach peristalis so chyme is released more slowly to duodenum
trypsin
pancrease, small intestine

hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds, converts chymotrypsinogen to active chymotrypsin
chymotrypsin
pancreas, small intestine

hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds
carboxypeptidase
pancreas, small intestine

hydrolyzes terminal peptide bonds at carboxyl end
amino peptidase
intestinal glands, small intestine

hydrolyzes terminal peptide bond at amino end
dipeptidases
intestinal glands, small intestine

hydrolyzes pairs of amino acids
enterokinase
intestinal glands, small intestine

convert trypsinogen to trypsin
bile
liver, small intestine (gall bladder)

emulsifies fat
lipase
pancreas, small intestine

hydrolyzes lipids
growth hormone
anterior pituitary

stimulates bone, cartilage and muscle growth
prolactin
anterior pituitary

stimulates milk production and secretion
adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH)
anterior pituitary

stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids
thyroid-stimulating hormone
(TSH)
anterior pituitary

stimulates thyroid to produce thyroid hormones
luteinizing hormone
(LH)
anterior pituitary

stimulates ovulation in females; testosterone synthesis in males
follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH)
anterior pituitary

stimulates follicle maturation in females and estrogen secretion in ovaries, and assists in egg production by meiosis; spermatogenesis in males
oxytocin
hypothalamus (posterior pituitary)

stimulates uterine contractions during labor and milk secretion during lactation
aldosterone
adrenal cortex

stimulates sodium reabsorption in collecting duct and potassium secretion (causes more water absorption and higher blood volume/pressure)
renin-angiotensin
kidneys produces renin in response to low blood volume to convert and activate angiotensin

angiotensin stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone (higher blood volume) and ADH from posterior pituitary
human chorionic gonadotropin
(HCG)
blastocyst, developing placenta

preserves corpus luteum for first trimester of pregnancy to allow estrogen/progesterone secretion to be maintained, maintains endometrial lining of uterus
erythropoietin
kidney

in response to decrease renal O2 levels, stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells
vasopressin (ADH)
hypothalamus (posterior pituitary)

stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys decrease urine volume
thyroid hormone
thryoid

stimulates metabolic activity, acts on reproductive, nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems to promote normal function, need iodine (thyroxine/triiodothyronine)
calcitonin
thyroid

decreases the blood calcium level in response to high blood calcium by influence on osteoblasts
parathyroid hormone
parathyroid

increases blood calcium level in response to low calcium in blood by activation of osteoclasts
glucocorticoids
adrenal cortex

increases blood glucose level (conversion of fats and proteins) and decreases protein synthesis, high levels inhibit inflammatory response (cortisol and cortisone), steroid
mineralcorticoids
adrenal cortex

increases sodium retention (and thus water) retention in the kidney and potassium excretion, steroid (aldosterone)
epinephrine/norepinephrin
adrenal medulla

increases blood glucose level and heart rate, response to stress, cause fight-or-flight
glucagon
pancreas (alpha islet)

stimulates converstion of glycogen to glucose in the liver; increases blood glucose
insulin
pancreas (beta islet cells)

lowers blood glucose and increases storage of glycogen
somatostatin
pancreas

supresses secretion of glucagon and insulin
testosterone
testis

maintains male secondary sexual characteristics (androgen) and sperm production, steroid
estrogen
ovary/placenta

maintains female secondary sexual characteristics, follicle development, pregnancy
progesterone
ovary/progesterone

promotes growth/maintenance of endometrium, steroid
melatonin
pineal

unclear in humans (possibly influence on patterned behaviors like sleep, fertility, and aging)
atrial natriuretic hormone
heart

involved in osmoregulation, lower blood pressure
thymosin
thymus

stimulates T lymphocyte development
endorphins
anterior pituitary

act on nervous system to reduce the perception of pain
gonadocorticoids
adrenal cotex

secreted in small amounts (androgens and estrogens), steroids
relaxin
placenta

used to release ligaments attaching pubic bones to allow for more space during pregnancy