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15 Cards in this Set

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air pollution: definition, sources, legislation
contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter in concentrations that endanger health ---- sources are hydrocarbons, fossil fuels, insecticides---- legislation is clear skies initiative
global warming and ozone depletion
a slow, steady decline of the total amount of ozone in earths stratosphere.....the observed increase in the avg temp of Earth's atmosphere and oceans
ground water pollution and 7 major contaminants
any undesirable substance in groundwater that is not normally present or present in high enough concentrations that it is harmful
7 - microorganisms, organic matter, chemical wastes, nuclear wastes, thermal wastes, sediments, water from different sources
solutions to groundwater pollution
remediation - drill well and pump out contaminated groundwater / bioremediation - treat water using bacteria and other microorganisms
risk analysis
probability that something undesirable will happen
risk = death / population
relative risk
ratio of the observed deaths due to a certain disease in a given population that shares a certain characteristic divided by the expected deaths in a population of the same size that does not have the characteristic --- standard mortality ratio
NEPA and Environmental impact statement
NEPA - National Environmental Policy act which was supposed to encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and environment

EIS - inventory, analysis and evaluation of the effect of a planned project on environmental quality
how is pollution measured
1.density = mass/ volume
2.concentration - amount of substance per unit volume (mass/volume of a mixture)
3.flow rate - quantity = amount/time, can either be measured gravimetric (mass/time) or volumetric (volume/time)
4.retention time - average time the fluid spends in the container through which the fluid flows
5. materials balance - use the concept of a black box which can either be a separator or a blender to combine
hydrologic system
precipitation, percolation into groundwater, evapotranspiration, repercolation - movement of water between the land, oceans, and atmosphere
what are reactors
most processes in environmental engineering occur in reactors - 1. mixed batch reactors are fully mixing with no inflow but outflow
2. plug flow reactor - a continuous flow but no mixing all elements enter and exit in same order
one and two are not typical in nature, in nature when a dye enters into a plug at first water is clear than becomes more colored until it reaches maximum level then it diminishes until the end
transpiration and evaporation
trans - measured by large vessels filled with soil to determine the rate of moisture escape from soil by weight changes

evaporation - measured by an evaporation pan
ground water movement
specific retention - the rate of the volume of the water an aquifer can reatin against gravity
cone of depression - caused when a ground water table is depressed due to pumping
draw down of multiple wells - can interfere with each other and cause excessive drawdown
porosity
- the fraction of voids volume to the total volume of the soil - some soils may have substantial porosity but not all of this water is available because it is tightly tied to the soil particles
explain the water table
aquifer - a geological formation containing a substantial amount of ground water

water table - the surface between aeration and saturation

zone of aeration - soil pore spaces contain both air and water but the water from this zone cannot be used as a water supply source ( gravity water, capillary water, and hygroscopic moisture held here)
ground water pollution
-hard water from calcium and magnesium deposits which requires softening
-agricultural facilities
-acid mine drainage
-NAPL : nonaqueous phase liquids
-LUST - leaking underground storage tanks
-DNAPL : dense nonaqueous phase liquids