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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an action that can be carried out indefinently,

four dimensions: environmental
ex: DDT

the concentration of a substance increases as it goes up the food chain becasue each consecutive organism is consuming more of the substance
a grouping of plants animals and microbes occupying an explicity unit of space and interacting with each other and the environment
a non biological influence ex: weather, environmental factors, altitute
biological influence: population, types of organisms, density
extremem hot temperatures, little precipitation, few nutrients in soil, cactus, no large mammals, plants that open at night to prevent water loss
coniferous forest
usually on mountain ranges, high altitudes. Sub alpine fir, Douglass fir. Mosquitoes, flies, and other insects are common inhabitants of the coniferous forest, but few cold-blooded vertebrates, such as snakes and frogs, are present because of the low temperatures
tropical rainforest
very hot and moist, canopy of trees keeps in moisture, very nutrient dense soil. Moss 100’s of different flora, palm trees. birds, bats, small mammals, and insects.
temperate forest
4 distinct seasons, equal precipitation throughout the year, Ponderosa pine, douglass fir, squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear
extreme cold temp, little variation in precipitation, close to equator or far from the equator arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears, very few plants that can survive the cold
medium precipitation, defined seasons, no extremes in hot or cold, no big trees, many grasses, animals that graze ex: horses
trophic levels
producer, consumer, detritus and decomposer
primary productivity
the initial energy input in an ecosystem
three laws of thermodynamics
a. change: energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
i. energy is passed through organisms and changes form when they are consumed but never destroyed
b. loss: in any conversion you will end up with less useable energy than you started with
i. the actual conversion uses energy resulting with a loss through any conversion
c. conservation of mater
phosphorous cycle
i. input: PO4- , in the soil, in mineral form (not gas)
ii. output: returns back to the soil as waste (urine and fecal)
iii. human influence: fertilizer, manure, soap which becomes run off to water supply
nitrogen cycle
i. Input: both gas and solid(nitrogen fixation) bacteria(symbiotic relationship) in mineral form, atmosphere, acid precipitation
ii. Output: waste, decomposition
iii. Human impact: fertilizer, burning fossil fuels,
carbon cycle
i. Input: plant absorption, water, atmosphere, Hco3, algae water
ii. Output: waste, cellular respiration, we breath out, combustion, burning fossil fuels
iii. Human impact: breathing out, fossil fuels
density dependent
factors that result in a given population’s density (ex: living space, resources, predation, water, disease, shelter)
density independent
limiting factors that are not a result of a population’s density (ex: weather)
carrying capacity
- the numbers of individuals in a population that an environment can sustain
developing nations
i. less educated
ii. more populated
iii. less technology- medical problems
developed nations
i. more educated
ii. less populated (lower birth rate)
iii. more technology (more pollution)
acid rain
i. Causes: pollution, sulfur dioxide & nitrogen dioxide, fossil fuels, gases react in atmosphere (sun speeds up the process)
ii. Effects: lakes, streams, forest, atmosphere, human health
iii. Solutions: government action, environmentally friendly power sources, energy-efficient appliances, turn off lights, carpool, etc.
invasive species
i. Cause: species introduced to new habitat that flourish and disrupt life cycle
ii. Effects: disrupt natural balance, reduce biodiversity, transmit disease, degrade habitats
iii. Solutions: prevention laws
endangered species
i. Cause: commercial exploitation, destroyed habitats, disease, pollution
ii. Solutions: ESA, don’t hunt, don’t litter, don’t poach, duh
water pollution
i. Cause: 3 big pollutants (dirt- clogs gills, bacteria, nutrients)
ii. Effects: eutrophication, silt in runoff from construction sites and farms
iii. Solutions: alternatives to impervious surfaces, porous pavement materials, sweet driveways (don’t use hose)
world health
i. Cause: overpopulation, unsanitary conditions, bird flu
ii. Effects: spread of disease, infant mortality, etc.
iii. Solutions: use a condom, etc.
endangered species act
a. An act that protects endangered species by creating laws limiting their predation
b. Take- if an action will endanger the lives of the surrounding animals, it is prohibited
c. Endangered- in danger of becoming extinct
d. Threatened- in danger of becoming endangered
i. “king”
ii. Largest (15-20 lbs)
iii. Matures in 3-6 years
iv. Smolts spend 1 year in fresh water
v. Threatened
vi. July-Aug. = migration to streams
vii. Oct.-Nov. = spawns
i. “dog”
ii. About 10 lbs.
iii. Juveniles migrate directly to stream
iv. Mature in 3-4 years at sea
v. Sep.-Nov. = migrate
vi. Nov.-Dec. = spawn
i. “silver”
ii. Moderate size (8 lbs)
iii. 1-2 years in fresh water
iv. Mature in fall of 2nd year at sea
v. Shorter coastal rivers
vi. Sep-Nov = spawn
i. “red”
ii. 6 lbs
iii. 1-2 years in lakes before sea
iv. Mature in 2-3 years at sea
v. Most abundant
vi. Widespread in Asia
vii. Aug = spawn
i. “humpy”
ii. 5 lbs
iii. Most abundant in Asia
iv. Mature in 2 years
v. Juveniles migrate straight to estuaries
vi. Runs are abundant in the Puget Sound
vii. Most abundant on odd years
reasons for population decline
a. Over-predation
b. Dams
c. Pollution
d. Obvious other reasons
f. Scientific name for all is