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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Non-living parts of an ecosystem.
What are Abiotic Factors?
Ex. temperature, sunlight, humidity, soil type, water supply, & mineral nutrients.
An inherited trait that increases an organism's chance for survival & reproduction in a certain environment.
What is Adaptation?
Ex. Cabbage plants evolved a chemical defense & cabbage butterfly caterpillars evolved a way to break down this defense called coevolution.
Living parts of an ecosystem
What is Biotic Factors?
Ex. animals, plants, & microorganisms.
Two/more species evolving in response to each other.
What is Co-evolution?
p. 46.
usually occurs between predators & prey with each evolving characteristics to protect itself from the other.
Relationship between two species in which one specie benefits and the other is neither harmed/helped.
What is Commensalism?
Ex. Ramoras are fish that attach themselves to sharks and feed on scraps of food left over from the shark's meals.
A group of interacting populations of different species.
What is a Community?
p. 37.
Ex. Pond community includes populations of various plants, fish, insects, amphibians, & microorganisms.
The relationship between species that attempt to use the same limited resource.
What is Competition?
p. 40.
Ex. Fire ants compete with native ants for territory, plants compete for sunlight, kudzu covers native plants & pandas compete w/ humans for bamboo
All living organisms in a certain area as well as their physical environment
What is an Ecosystem?
p. 34.
Ex. soil ecosystem includes a variety of organisms- earthworms, snakes, moles, insects, plants, fungi and bacteria
Change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to the next.
What is Evolution?
p. 44.
The process of natural selection is responsible for evolution according to Charles Darwin's Theory.
The irreversible disappearance of a population or species.
What is Extinction?
p. 46.
When the last member of a species dies out.
A place where an organism lives.
What is a Habitat?
p. 38.
Ex. Lion's live in a Savannah, Howler Monkey lives in a Rainforest, Cactus live in desert etc.
Organism from which a parasite takes its nourishment.
What is a Host?
p. 41.
Ex. a dog is the host organism of a tick/flea, a tree is the host of mistletoe
A relationship between two species in which both benefit.
What is Mutualism?
p. 41.
Ex. the relationship between you and your intestinal bacteria, the Acacia tree in Central America and ants.
A term used to describe the unequal survival and reproduction of organisms that results from the presence or absence of particular inherited traits.
What is Natural Selection?
p. 43.
Darwin proposed that over many generations natural selection causes the characteristics of populations to change causing evolution in organisms.
An organism's way of life
What is Niche?
p. 38.
Ex. all the lion's relationships with its environment - both the living and nonliving parts create its niche.
An individual living thing.
What is an Organism?
p. 37
It can be microscopic, one-celled or multicellular as a living thing
An organism that lives in or on another organism and feeds on it without immediately killing it.
What is a Parasite? p.41.
most organisms are negatively affected by parasites making them more vulnerable to predators.
The relationship between a parasite and its host.
What is Parasitism? p. 41
Ex. relationships of ticks, fleas, tapeworms, viruses, blood-sucking leeches, and mistletoe with their hosts.
A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular place.
What is a Population? p. 37.
Ex. a bullfrog population ia pond or a bluebonnet population of a field or a bacterium population of a petri dish.
The act of killing and eating another organism.
What is Predation? p. 39.
Ex.Lionsfeeding on Zebras, birds eating insects, snakes eating mice, etc.
An organism that kills and eats another organism.
What is a Predator? p. 39.
Ex. hawks, starfish, chameleon, cougar, fox, etc.
An organism that is killed and eaten by a predator.
What is Prey? p. 39.
Ex. krill to whales, deer to cougars, insects to birds, etc.
A group of organisms that are able to produce fertile offspring and that resemble each other, in appearance, behavior, & internal structure.
What are Species? p. 37.
Ex. Homo sapiens = humans, Canis familiaris = tame dogs
Gorilla gorilla = all gorillas
Consumer that eats only other consumers.
What is a Carnivore? p. 57.
Flesheaters include hawks, monitor lizards, sharks, lions, etc.
The process of breaking down food to yield energy.
What is Cellular Respiration?
p. 57.
Sugars and oxygen combine to form carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Final, Stable community that forms when lands are left undisturbed.
What is a Climax Community?
Ex. a Maple forest remains a Maple forest unless some serious disturbance occurs.
An organism that gets its energy by eating other organisms; a heterotroph
What is a Consumer? p. 56.
Ex. Carnivores/Omnivores.
A consumer that gets its food by breaking down dead organisms.
What is a Decomposer? p.57
Ex. bacteria & fungi
The sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats and is then eaten by another.
What is a Food Chain? p.59
Ex. An Ocean food chain = algae > krill > Cod > Leopard Seal > Killer Whale
Diagram showing feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.
What is a Food Web? p.60
Organisms feed on more than one kind of food and ecosystems almost always have more species than those in a single food chain.
Consumer that eats only producers.
What is a Herbivore?
p. 57.
Ex. Mammals such as cows, horses, sheep, etc.
Bacteria that convert nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into a form that plants can use.
What are Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria? p. 64.
bacteria that take nitrogen gas from the air and transorm it into a form that ecosystems can use.
Consumers that eat both plants and animals.
What is an Omnivore? p.57
Ex. humans, bears & pigs.
First organisms to colonize any newly available area and start the process of succession.
What are Pioneers? p. 67.
Ex. grasses & weeds that produce many seeds.
Rain, sleet, hail, snow that has condensed from water vapor in the atmosphere and returns to Earth's surface.
What is Precipitation? p. 63.
Most important part of Water Cycle to plants and animals
Succession that occurs in areas where no ecosystem has existed previously.
What is Primary Succession? p. 69.
slower process due to no soil due to glacial retreat
or volcanic eruptions.
An organism that makes its own ; autotroph
What is a Producer?
p. 56.
ex. Flora / vegetation.
Pattern of change in an area where an ecosystem has previously existed.
What is Secondary Succession?
p. 67.
ex. burned areas around Mt. St. Helens.
The regular pattern of changes over time in the types of species in a community.
What is Succession.
p. 66
Ex. May take hundreds or thousands of years.
A step in the transfer of energy through an ecosystem.
What is Trophic Levels?
p. 60
Ex. transfer of energy makes less of it available to man
The continual process by which water circulates between the atmosphere and Earth.
What is the Water Cycle?
p. 62.
Ex. evaporation > condesation > precipitation >