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109 Cards in this Set

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Lessons of Easter Island

S, PI,D,PU

1
1. Society fails to care for the environment

2. Population Increases beyond carrying capacity

3. Disparity between rich and poor widens

4. Population uses up all the trees--couldn't make boats to get off the island.
How to Prevent Global Version of Easter Island

UUAP
2
1. Understand how the natural world works

2. Understand how human systems are interacting with natural systems

3.Accurately assess the status and trends of crucial natural systems

4. Promote a long term, sustainable relationship with the natural world.
The Global Environmental Picture

PDGL
3
1. Population Growth and Economic Development

2. Decline of vital life support ecosystems

3. Global Atmospheric Changes

4. Loss of Biodiversity
Ecological Footprint

4
-a concept for measuring the demand placed on Earth's resources by individuals from different parts of the world.

-Involves calculations of the natural area required to satisfy human needs.
A typical person takes

5
12 acres to sustain. World growing by 77 million people per year.
2 Major Environmental Problems

IA

6
1. Increasing population

2. AFFLUENCE DRIVEN CONSUMPTION (newer is better)
Indicators of Environmental Problems

DAOF
7
1. Depleted Water Supplies (especially ground water)

2. Agricultural Soils Degraded
(soils wash away as they become increasingly exposed)

3. Oceans Overfished

4. Forests cut faster than they can grow.
The Millenium Ecosystem Project shows

8
-how all ecosystems are in a relationship with one another.
The Montreal Protocol of 1987

9
-aimed at curbing pollution from the release of chloruorocarbon refrigerants into the atmosphere
Carbon Dioxide is

10
-an unavoidable by-product of burning fossil fuels---crude oil, coal, and natural gas.
On Ozone Action Day,

LRSWPD

11
1. limit your driving and delay running errands

2. Ride the Bus

3. Share a ride

4. Walk or Ride a Bicycle to Work and use it for errands

5. Post-pone refueling until 6PM plus don't top off the tank.

6. Don't mow lawn until after 6PM.
An Ecosystem is

(PAM)
12
-a grouping of plants, animals, and microbes living in a certain environment.
Biotic Communities are

Biota
(PAM)
13
-the assemblage of plants, animals and microbes of a natural forest, grassland, pond, coral reef, or other land.
Abiotic Factors are

14
-the nonliving chemical and physical factors of an area such as the amount of water or moisture present, the temperature, the salinity, or the type of soil in an area. These determine the biota of an area
Species are the

(PAM)
15
-different kinds of plants, animals, and microbes of a community.
A given species includes

16
-all those individuals which have a strong similarity in appearance to one another and which are distinct in appearance from othe such groups.
Population refers to each species in

17
-a biotic community and the number of individuals in that community that make up the interbreeding, reproducing group.
An association is the most basic kind of plant community and is defined as

18
-a plant community with a definite composition, uniform habitat characteristics, and uniform plant growth.
Ecology is the

19
-study of ecosystems and the interactions that occur among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
Ecotone

20
-when an organism passes from one ecosystme to another, the organism may go into the other through a transitional region that shares many of the same species and characteristics of both ecosytems.
Landscapes are

21
-a group of interacting ecosystems.

-A barrier island, a saltwater bay, an the salt marsh behind it constitute a landscape.
Biomes are

22
-similar or related ecosystems or landscapes that are often grouped together to form major kinds of ecosystems. (Grasslands, Desserts, Tropical Rain Forest)
Biospehere

23
-all species on Earth, along with all of their environments, make up a vast ecosystem called the biosphere.
Biotic Structure refers to

24
-the way different categories of organisms fit together in an ecosystem.
Trophic Structure refers to

25
-the major feeding relationships in an ecosystem.
Three Trophic Categories are

26
-Producers, Consumers, and Detritus Feeders/Decomposers.
Producers are

27
-organisms that capture energy from the Sun or from chemical reactions to convert Carbon Dioxide into organic matter.
Photosynthesis

28
-is the process mostly green plants use to convert light engery into Carbon Dioxide and water to organic compounds such as sugar glucose that is then released as oxygen.
Chlorophyll is the

29
-major molecule used by plants in obtaining light energy.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment
Organic refers to

30
-all those materials that make up the bodies of living organisms--molecules such as proteins, fats, lipids, or carbohydrates
Organic matter can also be

DLSWCO

31
-dead leaves, leather, sugar, wood, coal, and oil
Inorganic Matter refers to

32
materials and chemicals IN THE AIR, water, rocks and minerals, which exist apart from the activity of living organisms.
Chemosynthesis referst to the

33
-bacteria that is able to use the energy in some inorganic chemicals to form organic matter from Carbon Dioxide and water.
The key feature of Organic Materials is that they are

34
-constructed from carbon and hydrogen atoms
Autotrophs are organisms that

35
-are self-feeders that produce the organic compounds they need to survive and grow.
Heterotrophs are organisms that

36
-must consume organic material to obtain energy.
Heterotrophs are known as

37

CDFD
-consumers, detritus feeders, and decomposers
Primary Consumers/Herbivores are

38
-animals that feed directly on producers.
Secondary Consumers are

39
-animals that feed on primary consumers. Also known as carnivores.

- A wolf feeding on an elk.
Predator is a relationship

40
-in which one organism feeds on another, and the organism that is fed on is known as the prey.
Parasites are organisms

41
-either plants or animals, that become intimately associated with their prey and feed on it over an extended period of time. The plant or animal that is fed upon is the host.

-host usually not killed but weakened.
Pathogens are

42
-viruses that cause disease.

-the same as parasites
Detritus includes

43
-dead plant material, fallen leaves, branches and trunks of dead trees, dead grass, fecal wastes of animals, and dead animal bodies.
Detritus Feeders are

44
-those that feed directly on Detritus
Secondary Detritus Feeders

45
-feed on primary detritus feeders.
Decomposers are

46
-primary detritus feeders such as fungi and bacteria.
A Food Chain is like when

47
-a caterpillar eats a leaf, a warbler eats the caterpillar, and a hawk eats the warbler.
A Food Web is based

48
-on the fact that all food chains are interconnected and form a complex web of feeding relationships.
Trophic Levels are

49
-the feeding levels that an organism belongs to.

Ex. producers belong to 1st level, consumers to 2nd, detritus feeders to the 3rd
Biomass is the

50
-total combined weight of all the organisms at each trophic level estimated by collecting and weighing suitable samples.
A Biomass Pyramid shows

51
-the relationships of producers, herbivores, and carnivores in an area.

-if the biomass of producers is 2000 pounds per acre, the biomass of herbivores per acre will be 200 pounds and the biomass of carnivores will be 20 pounds per acre.
Mutualism is

52
-a feeding relationship that is beneficial to both species.

-flowers and pollinating insects.
Habitat refers to

53
-the kind of place--defined by the plant community and physical environment--where a species is biologically adapted to live.
An Ecological Niche refers

54
-to what the animal feeds on, where it feeds, when it feeds, where it finds shelter, how it responds to abiotic factors, and where it nests.

-competitors can coexist in same habitat, but have different niches.
Abiotic Factors are

55
-the physical and chemical factors of an environment that different species respond to.
Abiotic Factors can be referred to as

56
conditions or resources.
Conditions are

57
-abiotic factors that vary in space and time, but are not used up or made unavailable to other species.

Ex. temperature, wind, salinity, and fire
Resources are any

58
-factors, biotic or abiotic, that are consumed by organisms.
Resources cont.

Abiotic Resources include

WCNLO

59
-water, chemical nutrients, light for plants, and oxygen.

-also includes spatial needs, such as a place on the intertidal rocks or a hole in a tree.
An Optimum is

60
-a certain environmental regime at which an organism does its best.
Range of Tolerance is the

61
-entire range of temperatures under which an organism can grow.
Limits of Tolerance are the

62
-points at the high and low ends of Range of Tolerance
Zones of Stress are the

63
-areas between the optimal range and the high or low limit of tolerance
A Limiting Factor is

64
-a factor that limits growth
The Law of Limiting Factors states that

(Limit GRS)
65
-any one factor being outside the optimal range will cause stress and limit the growth, reproduction, and even the survival of a population.
Growth may be limited not only by abiotic factors, but also

66
-biotic factors.
Synergistic Effects/Synergisms
are defined as

67
-two or more factors interacting in a way that causes an effect much greater than one would anticipate from the effects of each of the two acting seperately.
Climate is

68
-the average of the temperature and precipitation that may be expected on each day throughout the entire year.
The Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome is found where

69
-annual precipitation is between 30 and 80 inches per year. Warm Sumers, Freezing Winters
The Grassland and Prarie Biomes

70
-has rainfall that either tapers off or is highly seasonal. Gets between 10-60 inches or rain per year.
The Desert Biome recieves

71
-less than 10 inches of rain per year.
The Tropical Rainforest Biome recieves

72
-95 inches of rain per year. Warmer Temperatures all year round.
The Coniferous Forest Biome has

73
-harsh winters and short summers.
Permafrost is

74
-permanently frozen subsoil that prevents the growth of trees because roots aren't able to penetrate deeply enough to provide support.
The Tundra Biome has

75
-permafrost
Microclimate refers to the

76
-conditions found in a specific localized area
Some Biotic Factors caused by

77
-other species may be limiting
A Physical Barrier such as

(ODMR)
78
-an ocean, desert, or mountain range that species are unable to cross may be considered a limiting factor.
The Neolithic Revolution refers to the

79
-development of agriculture and the more abundant and reliable food supply that resulted from it.
The Industrial Revolution refers to

(CFLCP)
80
-the revolution that created the modern world of global commerce, factories, large cities, and pollution.
The Technological Marvels of the Industrial Revo were fueled by

81
-fossil fuels--first coal and then gas.
The Human System refers to

(AHASACD)
82
-our system of animal husbandry, agriculture, and all human social and cultural developments.

Human System replaces natural system.
The Environmental Revolution refers to

83
-the effort to make the transitions necessary to move the human system from its present state to one that is sustainable.
The Greenhouse Effect is the

84
-absorption of infared energy by carbon dioxide that warms the lower half of the atmosphere.
The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 tried to

85
-reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Habitat Alteration refers to

86
-a species being wiped out by having its habitat destroyed and by having no other populations in other habitats.
Biodiversity refers to

87
-the total diversity of living things--plants, animals, and microbes--that inhabit the planet.
Risks of Losing Biodiversity


(A8B)
88
1. All domestic plants and animals come from wild species

2. 80 percent of the human population depends on traditional medicines which are highly dependent on biodiversity.

3. Biodiversity is a critical factor in maintaining the stability of natural systems and enabling them to recover after disturbances such as fires or volcanic eruptions.
Sustainability refers to

89
-the practical goal that our interactions with the natural world should be working toward.
Stewardship refers

90
-to the ethical and moral framework that informs our public and private actions.
Sound Science is

91
-the basis of our understanding of how the world works and how human systems interact with it.
Ecosystem Capital refers to

92
-the natural and managed ecosystems that provide essential goods and services to human enterprises
Policy and Politics refers to

93
-the human decisions that determine what happens to the natural world, and the political processes that lead to those decisions
Globalization refers to

(HAIC)
94
-the accelerating interconnectedness of human activities, ideas, and cultures.
Sustainable Systems say that a system is

95
-sustainable if it can be continued indefinitely without depleting any of the material or energy resources required to keep it running.
A Sustainable Society is

(ASIB,CGAG,DDIRB,DPPIE)
96
1. A society that is in balance with the natural world

2. Continues generation after generation

3. Doesn't deplete its resource base by exceeding sustainable yields

4. Doesn't produce pollutants in excess of nature's capacity to absorb them.
Development refers to

97
-the continued improvement of living standards by economic growth, usually in the developing countries.
Equity is where

98
-the needs of present generations are met and the needs of future generations are seen as equally deserving as those living now.
Environmental Racism is the

99
-placement of waste sites and other hazardous facilities in towns and neighborhoods in which most of the residents are non-white.
Stewardship is the

100
-ethical and moral framework that should inform our public and private actions.
Environmental Science

101
-employs the methods of sound science to provide the information needed by human societies to improve human welfare and to promote the health of the natural systems that sustaint those societies.
The Scientific Method is

102
-a way of gaining knowledge.
Data consits of

103
-information gathered from observations and measurements drawn from the natural world or from human interactions with it and from testing ideas through experimentation.
Facts are

104
-things or events that have been confirmed by more than one observer and remain open to being reconfirmed by other people.
Theories are

105
-the explanations of how things work in the natural world on the basis of data collected.
Uniformity of Nature is

106
-the belief that the natural world obeys certain fundamental laws and does so without exception
Quatifiability is

107
-considered by some to be a requirement for data. If you can't measure it, it isn't scientifically valid.
The Purpose of Environmental Public Policy is to

108
-promote the common good
The Common Environmental Good is to

109
1. Prevent the reduction of air, water, and land pollution.

2. The use of natural resources like forests, fisheries, oil, land, and so forth.