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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the O Horizon?
Organic Matter
What is the A Horizon?
Topsoil
mineral particles mixed with organic shit
E Horizon?
Zone of leaching
-depleted of soluble nutrients
The B Horizon?
Sub-soil
has dense texture
C Horizon?
parent material
-weathered rock fragments
What is erosion?
the natural process, resulting in redistribution of products of geologic weathering and is part of both soil formation and soil loss
T or F
Agriculture accounts for largest single share of global H20 use
True
What percentage of irrigation H20 never reaches its destination?
80 percent
Fertilizers are used because of lack of what three nutrients?
Nitrogen, Potassium, and Phosphorus
What do GMO's contain?
DNA processing genes borrowed from unrelated species
What percentage of GMO's is all processed food in North America?
60%
Managing Topography deals with what 3 concepts?
Contour Plowing
Strip farming
Terracing
What is contour plowing?
plowing across slope to slow flow of water
What is strip farming?
planting diff. crops in alternating strips along land contours
What is terracing?
Shaping land to create level shelves of earth to hold water and soil
What cause highest reates of erosion b/c they leave soil bare for much of the year?
row crops
What do they do to fix this problem of row crops?
-leave crop residue after harvest
-mulch
-plant cover crops
What is health?
state of physical, mental, and soical well being
What is a change in body's condition in response to an env. factor?
Disease
What are examples of infectious organisms?
-salmonella
-malria
-giardia
What is known as a disease never known before or has been absent for at least 20 yrs?
Emergent Disease
What is the difference bwt. Hazardous chemicals and Toxic Chemicals?
Hazardous are dangerous
Toxic are posionous
what are mutagens?
agents that dmage or alter DNA
-radiation
What are teratogens?
Specifically cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and dev.
Carcinogens cause?
cancer
What is described as how, where, and when a toxic material will move through the env. or body to site of action?
Solubility
What is the selective absorption and storage of a great variety of molecules?
This allows them to do what?
Bioaccumulation
-allows them to aquire nutrients and essential minerals but at same time absorb harmful substances
What is Biomagnification?
When the toxic burden of a large number of org. at a lower trophic level is accumulated and concentrated by a predator in a higher trophic level
Persistance deals with some chemicals that are unstable and degrade quickly and what else?
Chemicals that are stable, toxic, and stored for a long period of time
Antagonistic reactions are mostly beneficial
true
Which chem. interaction is when one material interfers with the effects or stimulates breakdown of other chem?
Antagonistic
When one sub. multiplies the effect of the other?
Synergistic Reaction
What does ED 50 show?
dose which 50 percent show effects
When dose is given and it 50% of pop die
LD50
What happens in a threshold?
Below it shows no effect and above causes an effect
Long lasting, result of single, large does or repeated smaller does over long term.
Chronic
single exposure and result in immediate health problem
Acute
the 4 steps in Risk Assessment
1. ID the Hazard
2. Dose at which problem arises
3. Duration of frequency of exposure
4. Risk characterization
-mag of problem for humans and env.
The 3 greenhoue gases
CO2
methane
CFC's
The composition and behavior of the troposphere control what?
weather
what are long-term weather patterns?
Climate
minute particles and liquid droplets
aerosals
what is the troposphere?
the layer of air immediately adjacent to earth's surface
redistribute heat and moisture around the globe
Convection currents
What level has no water vapor and nearly 1,000 times more ozone?
Stratosphere
Where the aurora borealis and aurora australis occur.
Thermosphere
Contaminants can remain in suspension in the stratosphere for a long time
true
What is the current evidence of Climate Change
Artic sea ice thinning
alpine glaciers retreating
coral reefs bleaching
sea level rising
What is a positive effect for the winners in Greenhouse effect?
resident of extreme northern areas would enjoy warmer temp. and longer growing seasons
The negatives of Greenhouse effect?
-1/3 pop. living in areas likely to flood
-plant growth patterns altered
-evaporation may cause storms
-diseases likely to spread faster
What is the most harmful UV rays?
UVB's which are partially absorbed