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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tragedy of the Commons
multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally based on their own self interest will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear it is not in anyone’s long term interest
Privatization of free enterprise
Limits to growth
rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies
o World population
o Industrialization
o Pollution
o Food production
o Resource depletion
Common pool resources
natural/human constructed resources that:
o Exclusion of benefits is impossible
o Exploitation by one user reduces resource availability for others
• Green taxes
taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives; examples of pigovian taxes; pollution charge systems, tradable permits, deposit-refund systems
• Restraint principle
conditional rights to scarce goods be distributed in such a way that they remain within the limits of necessity, available for redistribution, and cannot destroy the resource, just compensation for resource degradation; goal is sustainability
• Consumer/citizen preferences
individual acts as self-interested consumer but as a citizen acts based on values and on an image of a good society
• Ecological rationality
-human reasoning and behavior that is adapted to the environment
• Kuznets curve
compares the development/affluence of a country with environmental degradation; early stages of economic development pollution is increasing, but it decreases as people have a higher standard of living because they have more time/resources to give greater attention to the environment; applies to a set of pollutants
• The “trouble with wilderness”-
seeing the wilderness as separate from nature leads to environmental irresponsibility, idealizing wilderness means not idealizing environment where we live leading to ignoring problems at home
• Carrying capacity
population size of a species that an area of the environment can sustain indefinitely; contingent on technology, preferences, structure of production/consumption, and changing state of interactions between physical and biotic environment
• Cost-benefit analysis
process of weighing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits of one or more actions in order to choose the best or most profitable option
• Adaptive management
implementing policies as experiments to probe responses of ecosystems as peoples behaviours in them change; aim to learn about ecosystems processes/structures and to design better policies
• Free market environmentalism
position that argues that the free market, property rights, and the tort law provide the best tools to preserve the health and sustainability of the environment; against government intervention and regulation
• Ecoauthoritarianism
implementing authoritarian principles, practices, and regulations (complete control, not responsive to the people’s desires) to solve environmental problems.
• Collaborative conservation
public role in environmental policy; sharing authority public and experts to regulate
• Risk assessment
determination of the value of risk related to an action; process of estimating damages that are occurring or may occur