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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tragedy of the Commons
multiple individuals, acting independently and rationally based on their own self interest will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear it is not in anyone’s long term interest
Solutions:
Socialism
Privatization of free enterprise
Limits to growth
rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies
o World population
o Industrialization
o Pollution
o Food production
o Resource depletion
Common pool resources
natural/human constructed resources that:
o Exclusion of benefits is impossible
o Exploitation by one user reduces resource availability for others
• Green taxes
taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives; examples of pigovian taxes; pollution charge systems, tradable permits, deposit-refund systems
• Restraint principle
conditional rights to scarce goods be distributed in such a way that they remain within the limits of necessity, available for redistribution, and cannot destroy the resource, just compensation for resource degradation; goal is sustainability
• Consumer/citizen preferences
individual acts as self-interested consumer but as a citizen acts based on values and on an image of a good society
• Ecological rationality
-human reasoning and behavior that is adapted to the environment
• Kuznets curve
compares the development/affluence of a country with environmental degradation; early stages of economic development pollution is increasing, but it decreases as people have a higher standard of living because they have more time/resources to give greater attention to the environment; applies to a set of pollutants
• The “trouble with wilderness”-
seeing the wilderness as separate from nature leads to environmental irresponsibility, idealizing wilderness means not idealizing environment where we live leading to ignoring problems at home
• Carrying capacity
population size of a species that an area of the environment can sustain indefinitely; contingent on technology, preferences, structure of production/consumption, and changing state of interactions between physical and biotic environment
• Cost-benefit analysis
process of weighing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits of one or more actions in order to choose the best or most profitable option
• Adaptive management
implementing policies as experiments to probe responses of ecosystems as peoples behaviours in them change; aim to learn about ecosystems processes/structures and to design better policies
• Free market environmentalism
position that argues that the free market, property rights, and the tort law provide the best tools to preserve the health and sustainability of the environment; against government intervention and regulation
• Ecoauthoritarianism
implementing authoritarian principles, practices, and regulations (complete control, not responsive to the people’s desires) to solve environmental problems.
• Collaborative conservation
public role in environmental policy; sharing authority public and experts to regulate
• Risk assessment
determination of the value of risk related to an action; process of estimating damages that are occurring or may occur