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14 Cards in this Set

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acetaminophen toxicity
Tylenol mostly metabolised in liver by sulfation and glucuronidation. Reactive metabolite formed, detoxed by reduced by glutathione (GSH). Overdose depletes GSH, toxic metabolites accumulate.

Massive hepatic necrosis 3-5 days.
carbon monoxide toxicity
Combines with Hb, >200 higher affinity for oxygen. Even less oxygen dissociates with hypoxia, compounding effect.
cyanide toxicity
Rapidly absorbed via bronchial mucosa and alveoli. HCN blocks cytochrome oxidase, results in diffuse cellular anoxia.

Effects within secs/mins.
mercury poisoning
Hg binds covalently to sulfhydryl groups; denatures and inactivates proteins.

Inorganic: Kidneys
Organic/elemental: cross BBB, neuronal necrosis.
lead poisoning
(-) δ-aminolevulinic acid; ↓haeme syn., ↑RBC fragility.

Targets: bone marrow, kidneys, GI.
Adults: PNS
Children: CNS
Silicosis
inhalation of silica (from rock, esp. quartz; mining, polishing, sandblasting, stonecutting, ceramics)

Macrophages secrete fibrogenic/chemotactic factors.

Collagenous nodule coalesce into fibrous lesions in UPPER lung fields.

15-20+ years of exposure.

Associated: TB, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary HTN, right heart failure, lung cancer, resp. impairment.
Asbestosis
Macrophages secrete fibrogenic/chemotactic factors.

ASBESTOS BODIES (asbestos fibres coated in iron-protein complex) most pronounced in LOWER and subpleural lung.

10-20+ years exposure.

pulmonary HTN, right heart failure, lung cancer, resp. impairment, pleural lesions.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Hypersensitivity to inhaled organic dusts/Ag. Acute and flu-like.

Dyspnea, dry cough fatigue.

Type III (humoral) and type IV (Cell-mediated) immune mechanisms.
Aflatoxin B1
Toxin due to contamination of food by fungus; metabolism yields reactive electrophilic epoxide that covalently binds to DNA, initiating tumours.

Hep B may be synergistic.
Acute/early radiation
days to weeks

Cellular necrosis, rapidly proliferating cells principally effected. Nuclear change from chromatin clumping to karyorrhexis (breaking up of DNA) Swelling, vacuolisation.
Late/delayed radiation
months to years

fibrosis/vascular changes; vascular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, atrophy of parenchymal/epithelial cells, cellular atypia.
Haematopoietic Syndrome
200-500 cGy
Latency: 1-3 wks
Pancytopenia, haemorrhage, infection, death in 3-6 wks.
Gastrointestinal Syndrome
500-1000cGy
Latency: 1-4 days
Denudation/ulceration of GI mucosa, fever, diarrhoea, death in 1-2 wks.
CNS/Cardiovascular Syndrome
>1000cGy
Latency: min-hours
Generalised damage to BVs, diffuse leakage of plasma, oedema, drowsiness, ataxia, convulsions, coma, hypotension, shock. Death in 1-2 days.