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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are mutagens, teratogens, or carcinogens?
These are examples of some of the most hazardous chemicals. A mutagen damages DNA. A teratogen causes birth defects. perhaps the most prevalent teratogen in the world is alcohol. A carcinogen causes cancer.
What are biological hazards?
Hazards that may be transmittable or non-transmittable. Non-transmittable - can not be spread from one person to another (diabetes or cancer). Transmittable - are caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, etc and can be spread from one source, e.g., an infected person, to a new host (cold, flu, and many others. Some transmittable diseases are spread by vectors like flies and mosquitoes
What is a vector?
a living transmitter of disease
What is Malaria, and how is Malaria spread?
A type of biological hazard caused by a parasite and many tropical areas are affected by the disease of malaria.

If the world gets warmer, it may spread.

A mosquito vector bites someone with the disease and the malaria protozoa grows inside the mosquito

if the mosquito bites another person, that person develops the disease
How do we prevent biological hazards?
reducing overcrowding, unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation, inadequate health care systems, malnutrition, and poverty

increase funding for disease monitoring

sharply reduce antibiotic use to prevent evolution of resistant organisms;

protect biodiversity as a means of reducing disease spread

increase research
What percent of earth's water is freshwater?
how do we define freshwater (vs saltwater)?
has a salt content of less than 0.01% or 100ppm
what are some major impacts of water shortage?

public health problems

reduce food production

endanger to the environment
Be able to describe the hydrologic cycle
water rises into the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration.
water leaves the atmosphere by condensation and precipitation
which is more likely to be polluted, surface water or ground water?
surface water
What is the mountain effect?
wind moving up the side of a mountain cools and water vapor condenses resulting in precipitation
What is meant by water infiltration?
ground water seeps laterally until it finds the lowest area level

aquifers are layers of porous material in which ground water moves

recharge area is an area where water enters an aquifer

as the water percolates through the soil, debris and bacteria are filtered out
What are two types of water discharge and how does this relate to surface water?
seeps and springs feed streams, lakes, and rivers

ground water eventually becomes surface water and begins to evaporate again
What are 3 major human impacts on water?
changing the Earths surface


withdrawals for use
Describe the ways that pollution of the water cycle occurs
many sources od water pollution: agricultural run off, leaking landfills, air pollution becomes water pollution when it rains, industrial pollution, even residential - storm sewer runoff. this a more serious problem in surface water than in ground water.