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107 Cards in this Set

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What does analgesic mean?
State of non-pain
What are the 3 natural sources of aspirin?
birch, willow, aspen
4 positive aspects of aspirin?
anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, lowers blood pressure, possible anti-cancer agent
4 side effects of aspirin?
Can upset stomach, ulcer of the stomach, allergy to aspirin, reyes syndrom
What is Aleve chemical name
neuproxen sodium
What are the 2 advantages of ibuprofen or neuproxen over aspirin?
No reyes syndrom and very little upset stomach
What is tylenol known as?
Acetaminophen
2 postives aspects of tylenol?
Good anti-pyretic and good analgesic
Side effect of Tylenol?
Can cause liver and kidney damage especially with alcohol
Where do opiates come from?
Poppy plant
Name 3 narcotics from the poppy plant?
morphine, codeine, and heroin
Side effect of narcotics?
Addiction
Two symptoms of physical addiction?
1. Build a tolerance of the drug
2. Withdrawal- physical change in the body
Two side effects of stimulants
Increase in blood pressure
Depress appetite
Two types of mild stimulants
caffeine and nicotine
What is a strong stimulant?
Natural strong stimulant in the body. adrenaline
What effect do sedatives/depressants have on the body?
They slow the breathing process and less oxygen gets to the brain
Example of a mild sedative?
antihistamines
Example of a strong sedative?
Barbiturates
Hallucinogenics are ...
mind altering
Chemical in marijuana?
THC- tetrahydrocannibal
What is hash?
Resin of hemp
Where does mesculine come from?
peyote cactus
What is psilocybin?
Mushroom
Where does bufotenine come from?
seed of morning glory
Natural source of LSD?
moldy rye grain
Carbohydrates are a source of...
quick energy
Proteins are a source of...
total energy
Proteins are a source of...
new tissue
Order in which the body digests...(4)
alcohol, carbs, fats, proteins
Carbs are made of what 2 main groups?
sugars and starches
Identify what each sugar is: glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose.
1. blood sugar
2. fruit sugar
3. milk sugar
4. table sugar
What does it mean when someone is lactose intolerant?
lack of an enzyme need to break down lactate. lactose is not broken down in the intestines which leads to CO2 gas and H2o (cramps)
5 categories of food in a well balanced diet?
carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals
Examples of simple sugars?
Monosaccarides: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Examples of disaccarides?
Lactose, sucrose
Why do marathon runners eat pasta the night before
Carbs are an excellent source of energy. When glucose levels rise isulin is released which converts glucose to glycogen.
Want a lot of glycogen storage in muscles. Excercising burns fat and glucose. whe you excercise energy initially comes from glucose and then from stored glycogen. Body tries to maintain a constant level of glucose. if level drops glycogen will be released.
2 examples of saturated fat oils
coconut and palm oil
How many essential amino acids are there?
20
What are vitamins
Catalysts within the body
4 fat soluble vitamins?
A,D,E,K
water soluble vitamins
B's and C's
Vitamin A can be found in? Function?
red/orange veggies. good for eye site
Vitamin D can be found in? Function?
Green leafy veggies, milk. absorbs calcium. can absorb too much (kidney stones)
Vitamin E can be found in? Function?
green leafy veggies and nuts. protects cells from premature aging.
Vitamin K can be found in? Function?
fruits and veggies. helps prevent blood clotting
Vitamin B1/B2 function?
helps body break down carbs to energy. co-enzymes
Vitamin B6 function? hazard?
helps body break down fats (cholestorol). can lead to blindness
Vitamin C can be found in? Function?
Citrus fruits. Essential for making collagen, prevents scurvy.
Iron can be found in? Function? what ones are needed/toxic?
meat beans. red blood cells. anemia is a lack of iron. Fe+2 needed. Fe+3 toxic
Calcium, Magnesium, phospate are needed for?
strong bones and teeth
Sodium potasium and chloride are all? Needed for?
Electrolytes. Conducts electrical signal for muscles to move. Too little will lead to dehydration.
Copper's Function?
needed for protein production
Zinc's function
convert carbs to energy
What is the ratio of copper to zinc
20 to 1. If it goes above then there is uncontolled cell growth and production
Salmonella and e. coli can be killed with?
A temp of 140 F
Two major sources of e. coli?
Unsanitary conditions and hamburger/chicken with red/pink
What causes botulism? Two biggest canned goods with botulism. How it can be prevented?
Underprocessed canned goods. fish and mushrooms. Pressure canning and adding food to acid (vinegar)
What does GRAS stand for?
Generally Regarded As Safe
What does a preservative do?
Kill mold and bacteria
Why are nitrites added?
Added to processed meats, kills botulism, fixes red color of meat
What is sulfite added? where is it added? What can it cause?
Add sulfur dioxide to prevent browning. wine. asmatic attacks and migraines.
What three things are needed to form nitrosamine? Why is it bad? What is added to prevent?
Nitrite + amine + HCL. Cancer causing. Ascorbic acid (vitamin c)
What is methyl salicylate?
mint flavor
What are flavor enhancers? Biggest example?
intensify exsisting flavors without a flavor of their own. MSG
What 2 things do coloring agents do?
Restore food to familiar color and replace sensitive natural colors
2 red dyes on market right now?
red # 3 and red # 40
2 blue dyes on market right now?
Blue # 1 and Blue # 2
2 yellow dyes on market right now?
yellow # 5 and yellow # 6
1 green dye on market right now?
green # 3
What is a questionable side effect of artificial coloring?
Hyperactivity in children
What do leavening agents do?
make a raised baked product, put holes in the product
What do sweeteners do?
Cover a poor flavor or provide a sweet taste
What do flavoring agents do?
Replace expensive and unstable natural flavors (esters, over 1200)
5 disposal methods of solid waste?
1. Open dump
2. Incinerators
3. Sanitary landfill
4. Trash to energy
5. Recycle
Composition of municipal waste? 4 examples
paper, glass, iron, plastic
What is the cost per ton per person? collection? disposal?
collection - 30-40
disposal- 75-100
4 disposal methods of hazardous waste?
1. Shipped out of state
2. Incinerate
3. Landfill
4. Well injection - past water table
4 Problems with open dump?
Air pollution, water pollution, vermin, insects
2 Problems with incincerators
Air pollution, water pollution (ash)
5 Problems with recycling
1. Quality of product (plastic grades)
2.Location of materials (transportation costs)
3.Psychology of "used"
4.Federal regulations prevent use of some recycled materials
5. No tax advantage. Tax credit for new materials.
Example of low-level and high-level nuclear waste
radioactive waste
fuel rods from nuclear power plants
What year was OSCA founded in?
1972
4 Groups of people not covered by OSCA?
1. Military personnel
2. Self-employed
3. Family farmer
4. Already covered by another agency
What does OSCA do?
adopts regulations from trade and professional organizations and from federal agencies
4 OSCA regulations most violated
1. Egress (Exit)
2. Electrical
3. Machinery
4. Noise - excessive
4 adverse effects of loud noises
1. Loss of hearing
2. Decrease in eyesight
3. Increase in blood pressure
4. Increase in stomach acid production
4 rules about exits
1. Must be free of obstructions
2. Cannot cover an exit
3. Must open outwards if more than 50 people
4. Must be clearly marked
3 examples of complex carbs?
glycogen, cellulose, and starch
How are animal proteins are complete?
contain all 20 amino acids
How are veggies lacking?
missing one or more of the amino acids
3 characteristics of fat soluble vitamins
1. Stored in the body
2. Not required on a daily basis
3. Can be toxic
3 characteristics of water soluble vitamins
1. Not stored in the body
2. Needed on a daily basis
3. Almost non-toxic
Five major categories of food additives
1. Preservatives
2. Sweetners
3. Flavoring agents
4. Flavor Enhancers
5. Coloring Agents
What is FD & C
Food drug and cosmetic use approved
4 alternatives to pesticides
1. Predators
2. Pathogens
3. Parasites
4. Sex Attractants
3 different kinds of solid waste?
municipal, hazardous, nuclear
What is the most toxic longest lasting
inorganics: toxic metals
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
DDT
3 propertities of inorganic
1. Very toxic
2. Last forever
3. Magnify up food chain
3 properties of hydrocarbons?
1. Toxic and cancer causing
2. Last for years
3. Magnify up the food chain
2 properties of Phosphates. example?
1. extremely toxic
2.30 days
parathion
What is another name for flea and tick sprays
Carbamates
Chrysanthemums
pyrethum
hot peppers
piperonyl butoxide
daisy root
rotenone
tobacco
nicotine