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26 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Economic Anthropocentrism
Using Market needs to meet human needs with regard to the environment.
Psychological Egoism
the view that everyone always behaves selfishly all the time.
Free Rider
a person who benefits from public goods but does not contribute to their production or maintenance.
Public Goods
goods whose benefits cannot be limited to a single owner.
a Malthusian view
the view that human populations, like those of other species, tend to grow too large , resulting in scarcity and widespread starvation.
a Cornucopian View
the view that there are no inherent limits to the human use of natural resources.
Free Markets
Rule governed institutions for the exchange of goods and services, in which consumer demand significantly influences the nature, quantity and price of what is produced.
Human Rights
the view of all humans as having basic rights. A possible basis for demanding conduct from people that is not motivated by market incentives.
Anthropocentric
Centered on Human Beings
ethics
a reasoned account of how people should live their lives
nonanthropocentric
not centered on human beings
argument
a sequence of propositions
propositions
sentences that have truth values
inference
logical derivation
conclusion
the proposition that the person giving the argument is trying to prove. The premises are provided in order to establish the conclusion
convergent arguments
arguments in which the same conclusion is argued for by a number of independent sets of premises
divergent arguments
arguments in which the same premise or assumption is used to argue for a number of different conclusions
serial arguments
arguments in which each premise depends on a previous premise
non-economic anthropocentrism
deals with things that cannot be captured in economic calculations, such as aeshetics, family, and national heritage
valid arguments
there is no way for the conclusion to be falseif all the premises are true. An argument is valid if it is structured in a way that, even if the premises are false, the conclusion follows logically from the premises
invalid argument
the truth of the premises does not entail the conclusion-the conclusion can be false even if the premises are true
sound argument
valid, containing only true premises
unsound argument
invalid with all true premises; valid with at least one false premise; invalid with at least one false premise
a cogent argument
the argument is sound, and the premises and conclusion are presented in such a way that the reader can easily perceive the argument's soundness
cost-benefit analysis
requires that all costs and benefits associated with a proposal be identified, and that dollar amounts be assigned to each
shadow pricing
a benefit that can be bought with dollars is used to suggest appropriate dollar equivalents for benefits that cannot be bought