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177 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Enzyme induced by plycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in TOBACCO SMOKE

w/ activity = LUNG CNACER
What does Glutathione-S-transferases do?

GSTM1 deficiency causes
detoxifies xenobiotic metabolites by conjuation to glutathione (GSH)

Deficiency = risk for LUNG, BLADDER, and COLON CANCER
Cytochrome P450-Depentent Monooxygenase System
Phase I Reaction

located in Smooth ER of LIVER

Metabolizes BENZO[A]PYRENE (found in CIGARETTE SMOKE) to metabolite that covalently binds DNA


Flavin-containing Monooxygenase System
Phase 1 Reaction

Located in Smooth ER of LIVER

Peroxidase-dependent Cooxidation
Phase I Reaction

involved in Arachiodonic Acid Metabolism


Metabolizes 2-NAPTHYLAMINE (found in SYNTHETIC DYES)

Reduction of Paraquat (herbicide) causes?
Depletion of cellular GLUTATHIONE (GSH)

generate excess ROS causing lung injury and pulmonary edema
Phase 2 Reaction

Alternative pathway for metabolism of 2-NAPHTHYLAMINE (syn dyes): oxidation by P450 then glucuronidation in liver

Phase 2 Reaction


Necrosis of PCT of KIDNEY

Bioaccumulation of Hg in big fish
from biomethylation of Hg2+

Necrosis of Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) of KIDNEY

Bioaccumulation in big fish

Can cross BBB and Plancenta

Glutathione Conjugation
Phase 2 Reaction


can cause vinyl chloride to bind to Macrophages after P-450 reaction -> ANGIOSARCOMA of LIVER

from Synthetic Dyes

from Cigarette Smoke



in plastics

Hydrogen Cyanide
Cilia toxin in Tobacco Smoke
Smoking is a big risk for acute MI for what population?
women age <35 on oral contraceptives
Name 5 types of Cancer smoking causes
Oral Cavity
Tolerance to alcohol is caused by what enzyme in liver?

What other 3 factors ^ EtOH tolerance

1)^ metabolism of EtOH
What 3 enzyme each can metboize EtOH to acetaldehyde?

Where is acetaldehyde converted to acetic acid?
1)ADH (cytosol)
2)CYP2E1 (microsomes)
3)Catalase (peroxisomes)

3 Effects of Alcohol on liver
1)Fatty change - acetaldehypde adducts with tubuline and impairs microtublues

causing v lipoproteins from liver

2)Hepatitis - fever, liver tenderness, jaundice - REVERSIBLE

-fat & hyaline accumulation (MALLORY BODIES) w/ PMN around necrosis; begins with central vein

3)Cirrhosis - hard, shruken liver surrounded by dense bands of collagen (IRREVERSIBLE)
Deficiency of Thiamine causes what 3 problems?
1) Polyneuropathy (dry beriberi)

2) Beriberi heart dz (wet beriberi)

Depressive and Addictive effects of alcohol can be attricuted to?
Fluidization of membrane phspholipids & Altered signal transduction
Both Wernicke & Karsakoff syndrome caused by what?

Describe effects of each
Thiamine deficiency

Wernicke = ataxia, disturbed cognition, ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus

Karsakoff = severe memory loss, linked to confabulations
*Alcohol Effects on heart?
Cardiomyopathy -> dilation of heart, altered contractility

probably due to directd toxicity

HYPERTENSION (reactive) secondary to vasopressor effect of EtOH triggeered by release of catecholamines
Benefits of Alcohol to moderate drinkers?
Protective effect from:
1) HDL & 2) ^ platelet aggregation
Alcohol effects on GI (2)?
1)Gastritis - acute, direct toxicity

2)Pancreatitis - w/ chronic use
Alcohol effects on Skeletal Muscle?
Muscle weakness, pain, brakdown of myoglobin (direct toxicity)
Name some effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
1) Microcephaly
2) Facial Dysmorphology
3) Malformations of Brain, CV system, GU system
Ethylene Glycol causes?
Acute toxicity

If survive, then acute renal failure occurs due to obstruction of kidney tubules by Ca OXALATE CRYSTALS
Do Barituates induce P450 activity?

Benzodiazepines do not
Cocaine actions
Blocks DA reuptake (euphoria, paranoia, hyperthermia)

Blocks 5-HT, EPI, NE reuptake(vasoconstriction (toxic) -> hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infacrct, cerebral hemorrhage, & infarct)
What is the fetus risk of cocaine?
Decreased blood flow to placenta (from vasoconstiction) = hypoxia

potential spontaneous abortion
Does cocain ^ or v atherosclerosis?
SE of MDMA (ecstasy)
toxicity to 5-HT neurons in brain

imbalance in 5-HT = anxiety, depression, panic disorder
Describe cardiovascular effects of cocaine
^ HR, BP & coronary spasm = myocardial O2 damage & potential ischemia or infarction
LSD, psilocybin & mescaline work by?

Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor agonists

PCP works by?
NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist

inebriation, disorientation, numbness, induced nystagmus
Acetaminophen OD?
Liver necrosis/failure
Do Oral Contraceptives cause Breast cancer?
No, no link found between them

also OC v endometrial & ovairan cancer
*Name 3 Uncommon/adverse effects of Oral Contraceptives (OC)
1)venous THROMBOSIS & pulmornary EMBOLISM - risk ^ for carriers of mutation in factor V (prothrombin)

2) Cardiovascular Dz - especially w/ smoking

peptic ulcer
Adverse effect of Thiopurine S-methltransferase defieciency with Azathioprine use
Bone Marrow failure
Adverse effect of CYP2C9 variants with oral anticoagulants
Adverse effect of CYP2D6 variants with some antipsychotic drugs
Excessive sedation, Parkinsonism
Chloramphenical's idiopathic adverse effect
Aplastic anemia
Adverse effect of N-acetyltransferase, slow acetylator with Hydralazine?
LUNG Cancer & MESOTHELIOMA (rare malignant neoplasm of the pleura & peritoneum)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons are Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), give some examples

absorbed through what?

Chloroform, Carbon Tetrachloride, Perchloroethylene, & Methylene Chloride

Absorbed throug Lung, Skin, GI Tract

Effects: CNS depression and Liver/Hepatic toxicity
**What is methylene chloride found in?

What is it metabolized to by CYP450?
Paint removers

CO2 & CO
Where can you be exposed to perchloroethylene?

Dry Cleaners

Acute: CNS depression, confusion, dizziness

Chronic: Dermatitis & potential carcinogen
Where can you be exposed to 1,3-Butadiene?

Rubber Factory

^ risk of Leukemia
Phthalate ester is used as what?

Physiologically induces?
a Plasticizer

Induces TESTICULAR injury in rats (so does LEAD)
Biphenonol-A mimics prolifefrative effects of?
Where is most of lead taken up in body?

Greatest affected population?

Children - inverse correlation between blood Pb concentration and IQ, can delay puberty in females
*Name the 4 Main Toxicities of lead
1) High affinity for Sulfhydryl groups: inhibits important enzymes responsible for incorporation of iron into heme molecule (HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA)

2) Competition w/ Ca Ions: problems in BONE & BRAIN developement as well as NERVE transmission

3) Inhibition of Membrane-Associated Enzymes: inhibits Na/K pumps, leading to v survival of RBC (hemolysis), RENAL DAMAGE & HYPERTENSION

4) Impaired Production of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D - leads to MICROCYTIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA
Cobalt and Tungsten Carbide cause?

Lung fibrosis

"TUNG LUNG fibrosis CO"

found in Toolmakes, grinders, diamond polishers
Cadmium causes?

Renal Toxicity

"Cadberry Bunny cant pee!"

Battery workers, smelters, welders, soldering
Chromium causes?

Cancer of LUNG and Nasal CAVITY

Pigment workers, smelters, steel workers
Nickel causes?

Cancer of LUNG and Nasal SINUSES

Smelters, steel workers, electroplating
Mercury causes?

Renal toxicity, Muscle tremors, Dementia, Cerebral palsy, Mental Retardation

Chlorine-alkali industry
Beryllium causes?

Acute lung irritant, Chronic lung hypersensitivity

Beryllium refining, aerospace manufacturing
Arsenic causes?


Miners, smelters, oil refinery workers, farm workers
Insectides typically cause?

Stored where in body?

Accumulates in FAT Tissue
Difference between Organophosphate Insecticides and Carbamate Insecticides?
Organophosphate = irreversible

Carbamate = reversible

Both cause neurotoxicity
Radioisotopes with longer or shorter 1/2 lives more dangerous?
longer b/c continuously emit particles
Alpha particle

Less penetrance (b/c of mass)

Higher Linear energy transfer (LET)

(above realtive to Beta particle)
Beta particle

Greater penetrance (b/c of mass)

Lower Linear energy transfer (LET)

(above realtive to Alpha particle)
1 Gray = ? Rad
1 Gray = 100 Rad
Rem = ?
dosage of E needed to cause 1 rad of Xray
What type of cells are most radiosensitive? Examples?
Rapidly dividing cells

Hematopoetic cells, Germ cells, GI epithelium, Squamous epithelium, Lymphocytes

Cells in which stage of cell cycle most sensitive?
G2 & Mitotic (M) stages
What molecules increase sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation?
Halogenated pyrimidines
What molecules protect against radiation?
Free Radical Scavengers & Antioxidants
>10 Gy radiation causes?
Overt necrosis
1-2 Gy radiation causes?
Killing of proliferating cells
<0.5 Gy radiation causes?
No histological effect but does cause subcellular damage
What is the exceptional cancer that cannot be induced by high radiation exposure?
Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL)
Delayed carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation may be due to?
Induced Genetic Instability, in which mutations persist and accumulate

Very comon with Lymphomas
Name the 4 Stages of Acute Radiation Syndrome (Radiation Sickness) and describe
1)Subclinical: <200rem = mild nasea, vomiting, lymphocytes <1500; 100% survival

2)Hematopoietic: 200-600rem, Intermittent N/V, petechiae; lymphocytes <1000; Infections, may require bone marrow transplant

3)Gastrointestinal: 600-1000rem, N/V, diarrhea, hemorrhage and infection, lymphocytes <500; Shock and death in 10-14 days even w/ therapy

4)CNS: >1000rem, inractable N/V, com, convusions, no lymphocytes; Death in 14-36 hours
What are the clinical manifestations if exposed to radiation during preimplantation (0-9 months?
Embryo death
What are the clinical manifestations if exposed to radiation during Postnatal period?
Growth and CNS retardation, eyes, teeth disrupted
What are the clinical manifestations if exposed to radiation during Fetal period (9 weeks - birth)?
abnormalities in CNS & reproductive system, MR, ^ childhood leukemia/brain tumors
Radiation injury to kidneys cause?
Hyalinizzation of glomeruli -> HTN, atrophy
Transverse myelitis
Necrosis, demyelination, & paraplegia caused by IRRADIATION of the spinal cord damaging the blood vessels
Radiation to the eyes causes?


Demyelination of white matter from TRANSVERSE MYELINTIS
What rays does the ozone block?
all UVC but only part of UVA & UVB

UVB & UVA causes keratinocytes apoptosis in epidermis -> dyskeratontic, sunburn cells
How do you tan? Negative effects?
UVA & UVB induce MELANIN sythesis by melanocytes causing the darkeneing

UVA & UVB induce ^ MELANOCYTES, elongation & extenstion of dendritic processes, transfer of melanin to keratinocytes

both UVA & UVB deplete langerhan cells and reduce Ag presentation through epidermis
Lack of DNA repair mechanisms after sun exposure leading to potential malignancies is?
Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Has it been proven that power lines and wireless phone can increase teh risk of certaincancers?
Difference between a Laceration and a incisions?
Laceration is an irregular tear in the skin produced by overstretching (ie busting head open with hammer)

KEY DIFFERENCE: lacerations will have bridging strands of fibrous tissue or blood vessels ACROSS the wound (not seen with incisions)
Burn with only loss of epidermis?

epidermis and superficial dermis?

epidermis, dermis, & dermal appendages?
1st degree

2nd degree

Both have pink blisters

Complete regeneration POSSIBLE!


3rd degree

Tissue has white or charred anesthetic = loss of nerve endings

Complete regeneration IMPOSSIBLE (only @ edges & deeper appendages)
List the 5 problems of thermal injuries (in order of signficance)....know all
1)Neurogenic shock

2)Hypovolemic shock

3)Secondary infection

4)Hypermetabolic state/ Plasma protein Loss

5)Lung/Airway Damage
Sudden loss of eletrolytes, sweating
Heat cramps
Sudden collapse due to CV system unable to compensate for hypovolemia secondary to warter depletion; spontaneous resumptionof equilibrium shortly thereafter
Heat exhaustion
Thermoregulation fails, sweating ceases, core body temp rises

common in high temps and humidity
Heat stroke
Do you lower or elevate the room temperature during Kwashiorkor?
keep room temperature elevated
LOC, bradycardia, atrial fibrillation and low core temp are signs of?
Hypothermia (core temp <90 F)
Direct and Indirect Effects of Hypothermia?
DIRECT: phhysical disruption of organelles that leads to HIGHER SALT CONCENTRATIONS


Gradual v Temp: vasoconstriction & ^ permiability - atrophy & fibrosis

Sudden v Temp: vasoconstrction & ^ blood viscosity = ischemic injury & degeneratinon @ peripheal nerves
Electrical injuries depend on what 2 factors?
1)tissue resistance (relative to H2O content)

2)intensity of current
Decompression (Caisson) Disease causes?
"Bends" = periarticular bubbles

"Chokes" = bubbles in lung vasculature

"Caisson Disease of Bone" = aseptic necrosis of femoral and humeral heads from embolic occlusion of vasculre supply to those bones
High-altitude illness causes what clinical manifestations?
1)Progressive mental obtundation with 2) ^ in capillary permeability -> CEREBRAL and PULMONARY EDEMA
Describe Primary Malnutrition
Lack one or all of adequte diet components
Describe Secondary Malnutrition
Nutrient supply adequate but have MALABSORPTION
What part of body is affected most with Marasmus?

Describe clinical setting
SKELETAL MUSCLE from inadequate CALORIE intake

example: chronic lung disease, cancer
What part of body is affected most with Kwashiorkor?

Describe clinical setting
Visceral organs, esp LIVER from inadequate PROTEIN intake

example: severe trauma, burns, sepsis
Clinical/Lab features of Marasmus
History of weight loss
Muscle wasting
Absent subcutaneous fat

Normal Serum proteins
Hypoplastic marrow -> hypochromic microcytic anemia
(v iron); mixed macrocytic if folate deficiency also exists
Clinical/Lab features of Kwashiorkor
Normal fat & muscle
Easily pluckable hair
Enlarged, fatty liver
v mitotic index at GI -> loss of villi
Hypoplastic marrow -> hypochromic microcytic anemia
(v iron); mixed macrocytic if folate deficiency also exists

Serum albumin <2.8
Give 3 examples of Secondary Malnutrition
1)CALCHEXIA - elderly, AIDS, and cancer patients; LOSS OF FAT & MUSCLE; increased energy expenditure W/OUT hunger; cytokine & tumor factor mediated

2)ANOREXIA NERVOSA - amenorrhea; v THYROID hormone release -> cold intolerace, bradycardia; low ESTROGEN -> v Bone density; Hypokalemia -> Cardiac arrhythmias; Anemia

3) BULIMIA NERVOSA - menstrual irregularities; electrolyte imbalances -> cardiac arrythmias; esophageal & cardiac rupture
Do people suffering from Cachexia loss fat or muscle?
Describe 2 hormonal disorders and their effects regarding Anorexia Nervosa
1) v THYROID hormone release -> cold intolerace, bradycardia

2) low ESTROGEN -> v Bone density
What are the fat-soluable vitamins?

Require bile & pancreatic enzymes b/c fat-soluble
If you lack Vitamin A, what are the effects?
1) Night blindness, Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)

Bilot spots, Corneal ulcers & Keratomalacia (destruction) of cornea

2) Squamous metaplasia (respiratory infections & renal calculi)

3) Vulnerability to infection (esp measles)
If you lack Vitamin D, what are the effects?
Mineralization problems -> Rickets (children), Osteomalacia (adults) leading to osteopenia (difficult to differentiate from osteoporosis)

from v intestinal absorption of Ca & P
If you lack Vitamin E, what are the effects?

Clinical manifestations?

2) degeneration of axons in posterior colum of SC

3) loss of nerve cells in the DRG


1) absent tendon reflex
2) ataxia
4)loss of position,vibration,pain sensation
If you lack Vitamin K, what are the effects?
Bleeding diathesis - characterized by hematomas, hematuria, melena, ecchymoses, & bleeding from gums

also some osteopathic problems
If you lack Vitamin B1, what are the effects?
1) Dry beriberi - poly neuropathy -> myelin degeneration leading to dropfoot/wrist

2)Wet beriberi - Cardiovascular syndrome associated with peripheral vasodialtion, high-output cardiac failure, and flabby 4 chambered dilated heart

3)Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome - W = ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, ataxia of gait, confustion; K = confabulation and inability to acquire new informaiton
Carotenoids are metabolized to what?
active vitamine A
What organ stores body's vitamin A? For how long?
ITO cells of LIVER; 6 months
Regarding Vitamin D, the liver converts what to what?

Vitamin D to 25(OH)D

Regarding Vitamin D, the kidney converts what to what?

25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D (most active form of Vit D!)

After normal physiolgical response, what are the body's levels of Ca & P after an episode of hypocalcemia w/ Vitamin D deficiency?
Serum leves of Ca are normal BUT P IS LOW; hence MINERALIZATION is impaired
Which form of Vit E exibits the most activity?
After absorption, where is Vit E stored and what is it transported by?
stored mostly in FAT deposits (also a little in LIVER and MUSCLE)

transported by CHYLOMICRONS
What vitamin do RBC's and Neurons really need?
Vitamin E
Name 3 ways the body gets Vitamin K
1) Exogenously

2) recycled by healthy liver

3) synthesized by bacterial flora

2 & 3 decrease dietary requirement

v bacterial flora or liver fxn will cause Vit K deficiency
What is Vitamin K needed for?
Act as a cofactor for clotting factors VII, IX, X, & prothrombin allowing for Ca binding

Also OSTEOCALCIN (secreted by osteoblsts) needs Vit K for Ca binding as well -> Bone calcification

3 major targets of thiamine?
1) peripheral nerves

2) heart

3) brain
Cheilosis, fissures at the angles of mouth (can become infected), is a sign of what?
Riboflavin deficiency
Glossitis, tongue becomes atrophic and magenta in color, is a sign of what?
Riboflavin deficiency
What ocular changes can a riboflavin deficiency cause?
opacities and sometimes ulceration
Dermatitis, greasy scaling skin..may extend into a butterfly distribution, sign of what?
Riboflavin deficiency
What vitamin is used to treat hypercholesterolemia?
3 morphilogical features of pellagra are?

pellagra is caused by what?
1) DERMATITIS - bilaterally symmetric on exposed areas of body w/ sharply demarcated scaling and desquamation

2) DIARRHEA- atrophy of GI epithelium

3) DEMENTIA - neuronal degeneration in the brain w/ similar changes in spinal cord

Pellagra caused by NIACIN or TRYPTOPHAN deficiency
Infants fed dried milk preparations wil havea severe deficiency of what vitamin?
Pyridoxine (Vit B6)
Deficiency of pyridoxine (Vit B6) results in?
cheilosis (mouth-angle fissure), glossitis, dermatitis, peripheral neuropathy

similar to niacin & riboflavin deficiencies
Name 2 fxns of Vit C?
1) activated prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase, both needed for hydroxylation of procollagen (ie bone osteoid formation)

2)scavenging free radicals & acting indirecctlyby regenerating the antioxidant form of Vit E -> synergy b/w Vit E & C may reduce atherosclerosis
Deficiency of Vit C results in? (5)
1) Hemorrhages, purpura & ecchymoses

2) Skeletal changes b/c inadequte formation of osteoid matrix (NO DEFECT IN MINERALIZATION! (that's vitamin D!))

3) Gingial swelling and secondary bacterial periodontal infections

4) skin lesions

5) Wound healing impaired
What to vitamin deficienies result in megaloblastic anemia?
folate and B12 (cobalamine)
Neural tube defects caused by lack of what vitamin?
Deficiency of what results in microcytic anemia?
Keshan disease
Presents as a congestive cariomyopthy (NECROSIS) in children and young women

Associate with SELENIUM deficiency
*Distinctive rash on eyes, nose, mouth and distal extremities called? Caused by? Results in?

ZINC deficiency

1) Growth retardation & 2) diminished reproductive capacity
Muscle weakness, neeurologic defects, hypopigmentation, abnormal collagen cross-linking
Copper Deficiency
Hormone that acts as an antiobesity factor called? Actions?

Binds where?
1) v the secretion of appetite stimulant NT called NEUROPEPTIDE Y
2) ^ release of NE metabolising fatty acid

Do obese people have a high level of plasma leptin?
Yes, but there is a problem with leptin resistance at level of transport therefore cant use
Obesity increases the risk of a number of conditions like (6)?
1) Diabetes (type II)

2) Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - fatty change in liver

3) Cardiovascular disorders

4) Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

5) Hypoventilation or Pickwickian syndrome

6) Osteoarthritis
Microcytic anemia caused by
Fe Deficiency!!
*pyridoxine (B6) antagonist?
Macrocytic anemia?
Cobalamine (B12)


"Macro FC...the greatest team ever"
Powerful vasoconstrictor?
Severe, restrictive lung disease
Silicosis (from silica in environment)
Elevated levels of zinc protoporphyrin indicate?
Chronic LEAD poisoning

Anemia of Chronic Disease

Iron Deficiency Anemia

-all above b/c lead interferes with heme biosynthesis and inhibits the incorporation of iron into heme, as a result, zinc is used instead
Hemorragic Dermatitis
Zinc Deficiency
Short-term appetite acting signal? Long-term?
Short-term: GHRELIN (rises rapidly before every mean and falls when stomach filled)

Long-term: LEPTIN (mediated by alpha-MSH signally; ^ TRH & CRF)
Does lead poisoning lead to severe wasting?

but Marasmus does
Eating more fruits and veggies helps prevent what?
Colong cancer
Therapeutic doese of radiation can cause?
Acute vascular injury - fibrosis and luminal narrowing
Large amounts of ethanol over a short time can cause (esp w/ acetaminophen ingestion)?
Choronic ethanolism induces CYP450 ^ ptotential for toxic liver injury from acetaminophen

Coma & death (ACUTE alcohol problem)

CHRONIC problems: cirrhosis, wernicke dz & hematemesis
Abetalipoproteinemia occurs with? what is it?
Vitamin E deficiency

a rare genetic disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins from food
Fatty liver complication with consumption of?
Cholorpromazine ingestion may lead to?
Cholestatic jaundice
Quinidine theapy may lead to?
Hemolytic anemia
What tissue is realatively radioRESISTANT?
Cardiac and Skeletal muscle tissue
Inhalation of hot, toxic gases may lead to?
Pulmonary edema
Cerebral edema is complication likely to occur after what injury?
Burn injury & Altitude sickness
*Excessive ethanol ingestion ^ cancer risk where?
Upper aearodigestive tract including PHARYNX & ESOPHAGUS

In stomach may cause chronic gastritis but not gastric cancer
Acute renal failure results from ingestion of?
Ethylene gycol
What is used to treat cardiac dysrhythmias?
Name the two deficiencies causing galactosemia? which is worse?

Can it be prevented?
1) Galactokinase - milder (no MR)

2) Galactose-1-phophate uridyl transferase (akak GALT...more severe)

GALT defieciency can cause hepatomegaly (fatty change), jaundice cataracts, CNS problems (MR), failure to thrive

YES! early removal of GALACTOSE from diet for at least teh FIRST 2 YEARS OF lIFE
The presence of anaplasia correlates with what mutation? consequence?
anaplasia = underlying p53 mutation (only 5% of Wilms tumors)

Emergence of resistance to chemotherapy
*Adverse effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy?
1)venous THROMBOSIS & pulmornary EMBOLISM - risk ^ for carriers of mutation in factor V (prothrombin)

2) Cardiovascular Dz (MC infaction) - especially w/ smoking

3) BREAST cancer

4) Cholecystitis (GB dz)
Vitamin C ^ Iron absorption where?
Small intestins
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) results in what 2 problems?
1)macrocytic anemia

2)degeneration of spinal cord (neuro problems)

* folate = macrocytic amemia ONLY
Gastric carcinomas
Liver carcinomas
During deliver, excessive bleeding causes a nutrient deficiency of what? in who?

in BOTH mother & baby
Cherry red lividity
CO poinsoning
Both marasmus and kwashikor suffer from?
Hypoplastic marrow -> hypochromic microcytic anemia
(v IRON)