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33 Cards in this Set

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mutation definition
any change in genetic material
functions of DNA
-pass on genetic info
-protien production
-controls cellular metabolism
mutation types
1. point gene
2. chromosomal aberration
3. change in chromosome #
point mutation
-change in moleculel level
-deleted/added/sudstituted
EX: hemophelia, sickle cell, diabetes type 1
Change in chromosome #
Failure to seperate chromosomes during meiosis, some cells more than normal, others less than normal
EX: trisomy 16, trisomy 13/18, trisomy 21
chomosomal abberations
-loss or addition of large pieces
-reversal of parts
-range from little to lethal effect
(loss of whole chomosome=fatal)
EX: philly chromo- translocation of 9/22
chronic myelogenous leukemia (blood)
klienfelters syndrome
Males: XXY genotype
-2/1,000
sterile, hips, ^breast, broadneck, waist
Turners Syndrome
Females: X genotype
-1/3,000
sterile, braodneck, not developed
mutagens
cause mutations-can be spontaneous or caused by cosmic rays and radiation
mutagen rates and pregnancy
15% spontaneous miscarrige
5-6% abnormal chromosome
1 in 3 of all preg. end b.c of genetic abnormalities
teratology
study of abnormal formations in plants and animals
teratogen
substance capable of causing harm to fetus (defect or death)
teratogen tragedies
(4)
-1940: nutritional deficiency study
-1941: german measles (rubella)
-1960's: thalidomide, in europe kids born with no long bones of limbs
-1970's: DES, daughters at high risk for cancers
Fetal Alcohol Syndrom (FAS)
1-3/1,000
-extreme form of maternal child abuse
- most toxic of any abused drugs
-CNS damage
-mental retardation
-heart defects
- skeletal defects
-clef lip/palate
teratogens: drugs and chemicals (7)
-dioxin
-anasthesia
-cigarette smoke
-dinantin
-valproic acid
-accutane
-tegison
teratogens: pathogenic infections
-german measles
-syphilis
-herpes
-cytomegalovirus
-toxoplasmosis
teratogenesis
dose responce dependent on stage of fetal development at exposure time
organogenesis
18-60th day after contraception
-most sensitive time
-30th day peak
Cancer in Humans-facts and stats
20-25% cause of all deaths in industrialized nations
6.6 million world deaths annually
1500 deaths per day
cancer is..
cell regulation gone awry, continued cell division and growth
how does cancer spread?
-lymph system
-blood
(METASTASIS)
initiation of cancer process
carcinogen -> target cell
adducts of cancer process
DNA has carcinogen bound cells
Promotion of cancer
stimulation of initiated cells
progression of cancer
needs 3-7 additional random mutations-> malignant growth
mutant genes CA
-oncogene RAS, causes cells to divide endlessly
-mutant tumor suppressor gene
-adaposis blocked
4 causes of cancer
-pathogens
-heredity
-oxidation damage in cells
-exposure to environmental carcinogens
dietary factors known to cause cancer
-diet= 1/3 of US cancer deaths
-food additives: coal tar dye, sodium nitrite (hotdogs)
-aflatoxins
anticarcinogens
-sulforaphane: cabbage family
-lycopene: cooked tomato products
air pollution
urban air has very potent carcinogens, damage gene molecular structure
occupational exposure
Sir Percival Pott: scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps
-higher rates in some occupations
-NIOSH
-US workers exposed to about 3-9 million proven carcinogens
occupational carcinogens (7)
-asbestos
-vinyl chloride
-anesthetic gas
-benzene
-benzidine
-hardwood dust
- radio active mine dust
cancer in:
industrialized vs. developing
countries
-rate higher in industrialized
types differ:
industrialized- cigarette, asbestos, high fat diets
developing- food preservatives, viruses, fungal toxins in food