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56 Cards in this Set

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any chemical that releases hydrogen when dissolved in water
acid
acidic solutions
0-7
basic solutions
7-14
Natural rainfall
5.6 (atmosphere)
carbonic acid
H2O + CO2 -> H2CO3
layer of warm air overlies a layer of cooler air near the ground
temperature inversions
normal pattern
sun warms air near surface of earth, warm air rises carrying pollutants, pollutants are dispersed by upper level winds. Common in areas in calleys with periodic cold weather, mountains/oceans
(sulfur dioxide)carried as much as 600 miles by prevailing winds
primary pollutants
(sulfuric acid and nitric acid) formed with water vapor
secondary pollutants
amount of damage from acid deposition is a function of...
acidity of water, buffering capacity of soil, and varieties of plants and animals
resistance to changes in pH
buffering capacity; lowest capacity-thin acidic soils (granite origin), soils that buffers have been depleted by exposure
human health impacts of acid dep.
resp. disease, leach toxic metals inwater
aquatic ecosystem impacts of acid dep.
decrease prod. in fish, forest, and farms...Below 4.5 pH, no fish.
high in SO2 and soot
industrial smog
sudden runoff into lake/stream
Acid shock
symptoms assoc. with indoor pollutant: dizziness, headaches, coughing, sneezing, nausea, etc.
Sick building syndrome...Cities worse than rural
3 most dangerous according to EPA
smoking, formaldehyde, radioactive radon-222 (U-238)
fibrous silcate material
asbestos
diseases caused from asbestos
asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma
NAAQS
National Ambient air quality standards. primary- human health, secondary- preven env. damage.
6 classes of pollutants
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter, ozone, lead
Contibutors to pollution
power plants (stationary) and cars (mobile)
apresence of 1 or more chemicals in the atmosphere in sufficient quantities and duration to cause harm to humans
air pollution
emitted directly into troposphere in harmful form (sulfur dioxide)
primary pollutant
formed by reaction in the atmosphere (sulfuric acid)
secondary pollutant
any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living orgainisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses
water pollutions
number of colonies present in 100 mL sample of water
(drinking-0. swimming-200)
coliform bacteria
Dissolved oxygen
higher the better (8-9 is best)
amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic deomposers to break down the organic material in a certain volme of water over a 5 day incubation perios at 20 degrees C.
BOD (biological oxygen demand)
discharge pollutants at specigic locations through pipes, ditches, or sewers into bodies of surface waters
point sources
sources that cannot be traced back to any single site of discharge
nonpoint sources
major categoris of water pollutant states
infectious agents, oxygen demanding wastes, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, plant nutrients, sediment, radioactive materials, heat
Common diseases through contaminated water
typhoid fever, cholera, bacterial dysentery, enteritios, hepatits, giardiasis, schistosomiasis
organisms causing diseases in contam. water
bacteria, viruses, parasitic protozoa, parasitic worms
examples of pollutants
sediment, inorganic fertilizers, manure, salts dissolved in irrigation water, and pesticides
water with dissolved salt concentrations
freshwater life zone
zones
littoral, limneic, profundal, benthic
shallow sunlit waters near shore
littoral zone
open sunlit water surface layer away from shore
limnetic zone
deep open water; too deark for photosynth
profundal zone
bottom of the lake; cool temp. and low oxygen
benthic zone
condition in an aquatic ecosystem where high nutrient concentrations stimulate booms of algae
eutrophication
newly formed; small supply of plant nutrients; often deep; clear water, minimum bio. activity
oligotrophic lake
(Lake Travis)
some bottom sediments; increases nutriends; more bio productivity
mesotrophic lake
bottom sediments; high nutrients; shallow; high prod. some species may be choked out
eutrophic lake
(Lake Grapeving)
murky, highly prod, close to wetland status, clear water species at risk
hypereutrophic lake
acceleration due to human input of nutrients
cutural eutropication
(nitrates and phosphates)
use of national forest system
(us forest service)
logging, mining, livestock grazing, oil/gas, recreation, hunting
use of NAtional Resource Lands
(Bureau of land management)
energy mineral extraction, strategic mineral extraction, rangelands
trees are maintained at about the same age and size...big industries, higher econ return, short rotations
even aged management
trees maintained at many ages and sizes to foster natural regeneration (small firm, long rotation)
uneven aged management system
negative impacts of harvesting trees
increased erosion, habitat fragmentation, invasion by alien species
intermediate/mature trees are cut singly or in small groups
selective cutting...reduces overcrowding, promotes growth of younger trees, uneven aged
removes mature trees in 2-3 cuttings over 10 years
shelterwood cutting...allows natural seeding, keeps seedlings from being crowded out
leaves behind only uniformly distributed seed producing trees
seed-tree cutting...ausethtically pleasing forest, useful for recreation, hunting, erosion control
removal of all trees from an area in a single cutting
clear cutting....large forest openings, no recreational calue, reduced biodiversity