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63 Cards in this Set

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Habitable Earth
Only one, right distance from the sun, right size, right temp. range 10-20c, remarkable mechanism
Molten Core
able to have conductive current for recycling of matter and energy
oxygen- essential for respiration
stable despite solar energy
ozone-reflective of short-wave radiation at ultra violet level
adapting to enviornment and eachother to enhance living quality
The variety of life forms commonly expressed as the # of species in an area. Estimated to be 4-100 million species 1.4 million identified
How did Earth occur?
Chemical evolution & biological evolution (Big Bang)
Chemical evolution
Stnley miller ecperiments 1950's simple chemical compounds can create copies of themselves if the environment has the necessary elements. They reproduce slightley different variations (mutations) + eventually produce protocells
Biological evolution
the change in inherited characteristics of a population from generation to generation
the evolution at small scale=individual species
Evelution at a grand scale/ a group of species
Causes of Biological evolution
Competion for resources, differences in adaptation to the enviornment, and the motavation is a better chance of survival
Processes of biological evolution
mutation, natural selection, migration, and genetic drift
a change in genetic transfer. Which are random changes in the structure of DNA triggred by enviornmental change; adaptation, migration and extinction
natural selection
an external change in the enviornment causes the change; genetic variability, adaptive trait, differental reproduction
geographic isolation and lose of geographic isolation.
genetic drift
change in genes by chance
genetic variability
diversity & not always favorable for enviornment
Adaptive trait
haritable & must be favorable to be passed on genetically
Differental reproduction
traits that are passed on because they suit the enviornment
Genetic diversity-total # of genetic characteristics of a specific species.
Habitate diversity-the different kinds of habitats in a given unit area
species diversity
species diversity
species richness= # of species in an area
Species evenness= there's variety in animals but an eveness in #
species dominance= the most abundance species in an area
species coexistence
Niche, competitive exclusion principle (Gause's Law), species that require the same resources may have different niche, interaction among species.
A profession in the ecological community, Inextricably linked with habitat
Competitive exclusion principle (Gause's Law)
Species that have exactly the same riquirments(resources & habitat) cannot coexist in exacly the same habitat.
Interaction among species
competition, sybosis, coevolution
Fundamental niche- basic area occupied in habitat with out compimising another species
realized niche- the actual area occupied by a species (the range of habitat in the face of compltition with another species)
The relationship between two organisms that is beneficial to both and inhances each organisms chances of living.
Obligate symbiosis- we need eachother in survival
change in gene pool in one species lead to change in gene pool of another
Biological arm race: predation and paracitisium
Factors of Biodiversity
impact, environmental factors, human factors
enviornmental factors
climate, latitude, elevation, slope, and aspect
human factors
pollution, disturbance in habitat, inturuption of the ecosystem, over exploitation, and genetic engeneering
Gone with the Wind
"In July 2000 alone nearly 8 million tons of dust from Africas Sahara dessert reached as far west as puerto rico"
The effect of Wind dust
Iron and phosphate rich particles create more photoplankton and algal bloom (red tide)
Harmful material- air pollution in loss of coral reefs
Uneven heat
most is in the tropic least in the polars intermediate in the mid lattitudes
Global Air Patterns
Uneven heat tilting in seasonality rotation in the coriolis force and the interation of air, water and land
the tilt of the earth on its axis is what causes seasons
the Coriolis force is the deflection of the wind pattern due to the earths rotation so it's right in the northern hemisphere and left in the southern hemisphere
interaction of air, water and land
The rain shadow effect- the windward side of the mountain facing the ocean has a wet cool climate the leeward side has hot dry and mostly deserts
The science that deals with patterns of species distrubution and the processes that result in such patterns.
Categories that identify groups of living organisims based upon similarities of characteristics
species, genus, family, order, class, phylium/division, kingdom, domain
A type of ecosystem with similar climate providing similar oppurtunities for life and similar constraints. Organisims evolve in similar form and function.
Convergent evolution
Species evolve in different places and times share genetic haritage. Develop similar forms and structures as a result to the adaptation to similar enviornments.
Divergent evolution
The process of two or more related species becoming more and more dissimilar. (the kit fox and red fox)
Island biogeography
attempt to explain the biodiversity in a geographicly isolated area.
The human factors of Island biogeography
Direct impact/spatial distribution of a species and caution when introducing new species to a biom or biotic provinance
Rules in biogeography (factor)
less harmful if the move is within same biotic process. More harmful if the move is to the same biom but in a different biotic process.
Local moves are less harmful than global moves.
climate factor
vegetation higly corrilated with climate. The higher the temp. the lower the diversity.
Earths major Biomes
Tundra, Boreal forest, temprate decidouos, temperate rainforest, temperate woodlands, temperate shrublands, temperate grass lands, tropical rainforest,tropical seasonal forests & savahnas, deserts, wetlands, fresh water, intertidal areas, open ocean, bethos, upwellings, hydrothermal vents
treeless plains, harsh climates, low rainfall, low average temp., permafrost. Arctic and alpine tundra
Boreal forest
forest of cold climates high lattitude and high altitude, dominate life forms, moose other large mammels, flowering plants and trees
Temperate deciduous forest
Warmer climates then boreal forest, temperate rainforest, moderate temp. 250 + cm. of rain a year.
Temperate woodlands
slightly drier climates than deciduous forest. Fire common, species adapt to it. Similar to temperate woodlands but even drier climate.
Temperate grasslands
Include many north american praries
tropical rainforests
high average temp. and rainfall, most abundunt in biodiversity
driest region, with high diuranl (day time) range of temp. only special species can survive. 5-20 in of rainfall a year.
most standing water freshwater swamps, marshes, and bogs.
all moving, domintated by photoplankton
intertidal areas
areas exposed to alternate pattern of low and high tide.
open ocean
chemical desert, with low nitrogen and phosphorous content. pelagic region.
ocean floor under the open ocean little or no photosynthesis, primary import of food dead organic matter falling from above.
upward flows of ocean water, stern nutrients and aquatic species bringing them to the surface
hydrothermal vents
occur in the deep ocean, where plate tectonics processes create vents and they are small outlets of hot steam or magma exscping into the ocean life forms do exist through chemo synthesis.