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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
first distant ancestors
trilobites and horseshoe crabs
first insect fossils
tiny, wingless, soft bodied ones. More familiar dragonfly relatives 250-280 M years ago

Most modern insect relatives present before Jurassic

Many of today's insects present in mid Tertiary
384-322 bc- father of zoology
380-287 bc- first catalog insect crop pests
Pliny the Elder
23-79 Historia Naturales Book 11 (all living things)
Johann Sperling
Zoologia physica 1661
"After all, we know at least 40 species of beetles, 50 of caterpillars, 70 of flies and over 100 butterflies."
John Ray
11627-1705- Historia insectorum
The number of insect species must be in the region of 10,000
Carl von Linne
Systema Naturae 10th ed 1758- binomial system of nomenclature
Insect population
Outnumber everything else
Almost 2/3 of all living species are arthropods
More than 1/2 of all identified living species are insects
over 1,000,000 identified
about 200,000,000 per human
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Arthropoda (jointed foot)
1) Exoskeleton, segmented body, jointed appendages
2) bilateral symmetry
crabs, lobsters etc.
many w/ 2 body regions, 10 legs, 4 antannae, aquatic
centipedes, many body segments, 2 legs/segment, 2 antannae, fans
millipedes, many body segments, 4 legs/segment, 2 antannae, round
spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites. Many w/ 2 body regions, 8 legs, no antannae, pedipalps
adult insects
3 body regions, 6 legs, 2 antannae. 0, 2 or 4 wings
King phillip cried oh for goodness sakes
center for sensing and eating
fusion of 6 segments into a hard capsule
appendages modified to form mouthparts
mosiac of hexagons or facets
can see colors, not red but can see ultraviolet which we cant see
simply eyes- ocelli (single facet, mostly sense light intensity)
smell, tell them apaprt by their scape, pedicel and flagellum
chewing, rasping, piercing, sponging, chewing, siphoning (crazy straw)

some adults don't eat, only mate

vestigal- non funtional mouth parts
suit of armor, tough but light.
does not stretch
covers entire outer body surface and some inner
basement membrane
separates inside from outside
layer of cells determines cuticle characteristics
bottom layer, soft and fexible, protein and chitin (bend not stretch)
middle layer, hard and rigid, tanned- protein+chitin+phenolics= sclerotin (structure, security)
top layer, waterproofing. protein+wax+cement
rubbery protein, hinges and levers
most abundant biogenetic chem on earth
center for logomotion
3 segments: prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax
magic 6 for adult insects
one pair per segment
tripod for stability
unique among all invertebrates
never on the prothorax, almost always on meso
texture varies from clear membrane to protective leather, to part leather part clear (hemelytra), to hard protective cover (elytra)
center for digestion, reproduction, ciculation, excretion
consists of 11 to 6 segments, usually quite flexible
only a few appendages (cerci, styli, filaments, gills)
also aedeagus and claspers or ovipositor (only females sting)
trachael system
a complex network of silvery air tubes that lead from the spiracles on the body surface to practically all cells of the body.
this is how oxygen gets to the tissues.
every living cell has direct contact 2/ outside world (unlike humans).
Made of cuticle.
aquatic adaptations
obtain oxygen in 3 different ways:
- air tubes
- bubbles
- gills
three guts:
foregut: eats, breaks down food and lubricates it
midgut: digest
hindgut: excretes
frass: solids
honeydew: liquid
malpighian tubules: blind tubes that open into junction of midgut and hindgut
most common wastes
uric acid: terrestrial insects, requires little water
ammonia- aquatic insects, toxic so requires more water
we have closed circ system, insects have open.
insect blood, contains plasma and blood cells.
transports things and has internal defense against pathogens.
blood cavity that surrounds all organs and bathes them in hemolymph
dorsal vessel
heart: takes in hemolymph, pumps it forward
aorta: conducts hemolymph through thorax to head
channel the flow of hemolymph so that it is distributed throughout the body
accessory hearts
pump hemolymph into wings, legs, and other remote structures

our heart is ventrical and theirs is dorsal
fat body
stores most chemical food

also serves to transform these chemicals into various products needed by the body

irregularly shaped tissue found throughout the body, particularly in the abdomen
egg stage
all insects start here
tiny but many shapes/colors
deposited singly, in clumps or masses
on in or near food
chorion (protein)
immature stage
mission- eat grow store
molting shedding replacing cuticle
instars (when you molt) and pupae
outheca: egg protector
adult stage
ultimate molt, perfect instar
wings and sex
disperse and have babies
change form/ shape
since an insect can change its shape only when it molts, the amount of meta. that occurs depends on what sort of new cuticle the epidermis produces.
degree of meta. depends on teh amount of juvenile hormone circulating at the time the molting hormone is released.
no metamorphosis, never any wings
egg-young- adult
adults and young live and eat in the same environment
simple metamorphosis
nymph similar to adult in looks, behavior, food
but only adults winged and sexed
complete metamorphosis
resting stage- pupa
endocrine system
includes hormones- chemical messengers
immature molt approaching
1) brain receives info that the body should remain a nymph or larva at next molt
2) brain stimulates CA by nerves so that juvenile hormone is released
3) juvenile hormone (produced by corpus allatum CA) circulates in hemolymph, informing epidermis to produce numphal or larval cuticle when it receives molting hormone.
mature molt approaching
1) brain receives info that body should transform into adult at next molt
2) brain does NOT stimulate CA, so no juvenile hormone is released
3) when epidermis receives molting hormone it produces adult cuticle and internal organs change, grow or disappear according to adult design.