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45 Cards in this Set

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Great Migration
Mass migration of some 60,000 English people to the Americas in the 1600s
Magna Carta
(1215) Signed by King John of England; document that limited the power of the moarchy, guaranteed basic liberties for nobles, and protected trading rights
Middle Passage
Voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Crusades
(1096-1221) Series of five wars fought between Christians and Muslims for control of Palestine
Boston Massacre
(1770) Incident in which British soldiers fired into a group of colonists gathered in front of a customs house, killing several people
Great Compromise
(1787) Agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention; granted each state an equal voice in the upper house of the legislature and representation according to population in the lower house
Republicanism
Belief that everyone was born with "natural rights" (John Locke)
Three-Fifth's Compromise
(1787) Stated that 3/5 of a state's slave population would count in determining that state's representation in th elower house of Congress
Boston Tea Party
(1773) Protest against the Tea Act in which a group of colonists boarded British tea ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
Emancipation Proclamation
(1863) Order announced by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862 that freed the slaves in areas rebelling against the union; took effect January 1, 1863
Anaconda Plan
Union plan during the civil war for a naval blockade; compared to an Anaconda snake
Patriots
Colonists who supported independence during the Revolutionary War
Nationalism
National pride or loyalty
Antebellum
Pre-Civil War
Hajj
Trip made by Muslims to the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals that swept through the British colonies in mid-1700s
Writs of Assistance
Special search warrants that allowed colonial tax collectors to search for smuggled goods
Checks and Balances
system established by the constitution; allows for sharing of power among branches of government and prevents any one from becoming too powerful
Strict Construction
Philosophy of narrowly interpreting the Constitution; holds that thegovernment can do only what the Constitution specifically allows
Missouri Compromise
(1820) Agreement proposed by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, Maine to enter as a free state, and banned slavery in the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36°30' line
Nativism
Favoring native-born Americans over foreign-born
Specie
Gold or silver that a bank held to back up its notes
XYZ Affair
(1797) Incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared naval war between the United States and France
Clermont
(1807) The first steamboat capable of carrying heavy loads upstream
Adams-Onis Treaty
(1819) Agreement inwhich Spain transferred East Folrida to the United States
12th Amendment
(1804) Constitutional amendment that created a separate ballot for president and vice president
Interhangable Parts
Process developed by Eli Whitney in the 1790's that called for mass production by use of identical, replaceable parts
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review
Midnight Judges
Appointed Federalists by President Adams on his last day in office to a number of new circuit posts
Prohibition
Complete ban on the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol
Oregon Trail
Route to Oregon Territory in the 1800's
Fugitive Slave Act
(1850) Law that made it a federal crime to help runaway slaves and allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves even in areas where slavery was illegal
Popular Sovereignty
Practice of allowig voters in a territory to decide whether to permit slavery there
Mayflower Compact
(1620) Document written by Pilgrim settlers that established a self-governing colony based on majority rule of male church members
Republican Motherhood
Concept in the early American republic proposing that women could influence politics and society through their work in the home
Monroe Doctrine
(1823) President James Monroe's statement that the United States would not iterfere in European colonies in Latin America but would consider any new attempt to colonize in the Western Hemisphere
54th Massachusetts Infantry
African American Union regiment that helped capture Fort Wagner in South Carolina during the Civil War
Republic
System of government run by elected officials
Mercantilism
Economic system in which a noation's power is tied to its stock of precious metals
Hessians
Hired soldiers primarily from the German state of Hesse; sent to help defeat the Americans
Impeachment
Process of bringing charges against the president
Loose Contruction
Philosophy of constitutional interpretation; holds that within broad limits the government can do anything the Consitution does not specifically forbid
Trail of Tears
(1838-39) An 800-mile forced march the Cherokee made from their homeland in the Southeast to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma; resulted in the deaths of almost one quarter of the tribe's members
Manifest Destiny
Belief of many Americans in the mid-1800's that God intended the United States to expand westward
Jenny Hederick
Terms/Events