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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the basic properties of water?
highest specific heat of any common substance (4.186 J/g C),
solid less dense than liquid, most dense at 4 C, cohesion and adhesion and hydrogen bonded
Why do we care about measuring water?
Properties of water and water movement affect virtually every process and, organism in aquatic systems
, vital resource for humans and huge conservation policy
What is conductivity?
/number of dissolved ions literally measured as electrical conductivity
What do we use to measure the depth of lakes and rivers and wadable streams?
lakes and rivers-marked cable method
wadable streams-depth rod
What is current velocity?
literally how fast water is moving
What are the methods for mesasuring current velocity?
tracer or floating objects method or flowmeter
What is the most useful measure of water movement? and what is it?
How much water passes a given point during a time period, discharge
How do you calculate discharge?
Q=Axv- A=cross sectional stream area, v=current velocity
What is viscosity?
The resistance of matter to shear stress, resistance to flow, the more thin the fluid the lower the viscosity
What is laminar flow?
sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
What is turbulent flow?
flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes.
The higher reynold's number is the more or less turbulent it is? If it is in the middle what type of flow is it?
it is laminar flow in the middle and higher turbulence with a higher reynold's number
lecture 1 slide 8
lecture 1 slide 8
What measurements do we measure for water movement?
depth, discharge and current velocity
How do you measure the cross sectional area of a stream?
avg. depth of stream flow x avg. width of stream flow
How do you find the avg. speed for a floating object to determine velocity?
ft/second..drop a floating object in the stream and time the seconds it takes to reach a certain distance
What is a primary tool used for flood occurence or bankful discharge?
What are hydrographs used for?
to study streamflows, uses river stage height of water above an arbitrary altitude and stream flow
When is manning's n used?
when bed roughness is of concern. will effect the velocity..therefore should be factored into the equation.requires no flow measurement
In order to assess water habitat what characteristics are taken into consideration?
flow characteristics, channel characteristics and water quality
What two parts are required for habitat assessment?
large scale habitat assessment and water quality,
and in stream habitat assessment
When assessing a large-scale habitat what is measured?
water quality, general sediment characteristics, aquatic vegetation
HOw is an in-stream habitat assessed?
Based on classification by Rosgen (1985)
“Dynamic stability” concept
Much of the focus is on physical dissipation of energy
Also forms the basis of most stream restoration practices, particularly “Natural Channel Design”
What is epifauna?
Benthic animals that live on the surface of a substrate, such as rocks, pilings, marine vegetation, or the sea or lake floor itself.
How do you determine the epifaunal substrate?
Relative quality and variety of natural structures; such as cobble, large rocks, fallen trees, branches; the wider the variety of submerged structures the more habitat provided for microfauna
What is high water gradient?
steep slow and rapid flow of water
What is a low water gradient?
sluggishly moving water and a nearly level stream bed
How do riffles and runs effect epifaunal substrate cover?
they are good, they provide for more abundance insects, serves for spawning and feeding for certain fish, more diversity in habitat
What are riffles?
Riffles describe shallow water where the flow is rippling over gravel deposits
What are pools?
whereas pools are deeper and calmer areas.
What do you evaluate for high gradient streams: embeddedness or pool substrate? and what is it
Refers to the extent to which rocks (gravel, cobble, and boulders) and snags are covered or sunken into the silt, sand, or mud of the stream bottom.
What do you evaluate for low gradient streams: embeddedness or pool substrate. and what is it?
Evaluates the type and condition of bottom substrates found in pools.-more aquatic plants and firmer sediments (gravel and sand) in comparison to mud or bedrock are better for diversity; the more substrate materials the better
What is embeddedness?
degree to which silt and sand have filled in around larger substrate , should be observed at the beginning of riffles to avoid confusion with sediment deposition
For high gradient streams do you measure depth/velocity or pool variability? and what does this involve?
depth/velocity-The best streams in most high-gradient regions will have all 4 patterns present: (1) slow-deep, (2) slow-shallow, (3) fast-deep, and (4) fast-shallow.
For low gradient streams do you measure depth/velocity or pool variability? and what does this involve?
pool variability; The 4 basic types of pools are large-shallow, large-deep, small-shallow, and small-deep...a stream with many pool types will consist of a variety of species
What helps to determine size of streams when looking for pool variability?
Large = at least one dimension (L,W,Oblique) is > ½ cross-sectional width of the stream
has multiple sizes
What is sediment deposition?
Measures the amount of sediment that has accumulated in pools and the changes that have occurred to the stream bottom as a result of deposition.heavy deposition=bad
What is channel flow status?
The degree to which the channel is filled with water.
What is channel alteration?
Is a measure of large-scale changes in the shape of the stream channel;Many streams in urban and agricultural areas have been straightened, deepened, or diverted into concrete channels, often for flood control or irrigation purposes.
What are four types of channel alteration due to human activities?
damming, depening, diversion, straightening
Which is used for high gradient streams: riffle frequency or sinuosity?
riffle frequency; Is a way to measure the sequence of riffles and thus the heterogeneity occurring in a stream.
Which is used for low gradient streams: sinuousity or riffle frequency?
sinuousity; evaluates the curviness of the stream; more bends more diversity; prevents excessive erosion and flooding
How do you measure bank stability?
Measures whether the stream banks are eroded (or have the potential for erosion). Steep banks are more likely to collapse and suffer from erosion than are gently sloping banks, and are therefore considered to be unstable.
What is secchi depth?
tranparency and turbidity
What is lentic?
referring to lakes or anything lakelike (ponds, impoundments, etc)
still waters
What is lotic?
referring to streams or rivers; moving water; flowing
What three elements are mainly focused on for chemical composition of water?
carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
What is mineralization?
conversion of carbon compound to inorganic carbon (CO2)
What is detritus?
non-living particulate organic matter
What are the catergories of detritus?
coarse-particulate organic matter, fine particulate organic matter, dissolved organic matter,
What is seston?
sample sediments
How are estimates of carbon collected in streams and lakes?
sediment sampling-seston, benthic collection, 2. fractionation 3. quantification
In wadable streams what type of collection should be made for carbon estimates?
benthic collection using a dip net method or stovepipe sampler. van dorn sampler, eckman grab,= sediment samples
How is fractionation performed?
using sieve stacks, separate different size detrital particles
To determine quantification of carbon estimates what method is most commonly used?what does it involve?
Ash Free Dry Mass, dry samples, ash samples, weigh samples before and after, subtract numbers afterwards for organic content
What does Ash Free Dry Mass only measure and what needs to be measured?
particulates, DOC
What are three methods to measure DOC?
color, isotopic analysis, and direct chemical analysis
What affects POC levels during autumn months?
seasonal changes in discharge
What is nitrogen necessary for?
protein synthesis
What is phosphorus necessary for?
one of the primary components of ATP/nucleic acids
How does nitrogen and phosphorus affect water?
a common pollutant
What are the taxonomy names for green algae, red algae, brown algae and blue-green algae?
chlorphytes, rhodophytes, chrosophytes, and cyanobacteria
What is the form filamentous algae?
long filaments of cells or more complex structures
What is periphyton? biofilm? and phytoplankton?
surface algae; complex of periphyton, bacteria, fungi, trapped organic matter;plant plankton
What do we measure in regard to algae?
production and standing crop
How do you measure productivity in lotic systems, lentic systems or both?
lotic systems- direct algal growth, lentic and lotic-estimate using DO/CO2
What are two methods to measuring algal standing crop?
AFDM-gives total organic matter rather than just algae
Chlorophyll a-indirect method that is based on photosynthetic pigment
What are the steps to chlorphyl a method?
collect sample from scrubbing cobble, filtration, measure using flourometry in a spectrophotometer,