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27 Cards in this Set

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Period in which people started to question the nature of absolute governments
Enlightenment or Intellectual Revolution
Definition of "revolution"
a change
belief in a relationship between the people and the government; the people give the government its power and the government protects the rights of the people
SOCIAL CONTRACT
Meetings of the educated in wealthy people's homes to discuss the ideas of the Enlightenment; especially in Paris
SALONS
Another term for an Enlightenment thinker
PHILOSOPHE
Another term for questioning
INQUIRY
Philosophe who believed people were born naturally selfish and needed an absolute government to regulate society
THOMAS HOBBES
A government in which a king or queen controls all decisions in a country
ABSOLUTE MONARCH/ABSOLUTISM
Book written by Hobbes describing the many roles of an absolute ruler in protecting the needs of the people
LEVIATHAN
Philosophe from England who believed the people have the right to overthrow a government that does not protect their rights
JOHN LOCKE
Locke's three natural rights
LIFE, LIBERTY, PROPERTY
Term for rights you are born with
NATURAL RIGHTS
Philosophe who believed in separation of powers in government to prevent tyranny
MONTESQUIEU
Separating the powers in government among three branches to prevent tyranny is referred to as...
CHECKS AND BALANCES/SEPARATION OF POWERS
This philosophe believed strongly in freedoms of speech and religion
VOLTAIRE
Female philosophe who championed women's rights
MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT
Philosophe who wrote a book called The Social Contract - described how people give up individual rights to the will of the majority
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU
Term for the "right to rule"
SOVEREIGNTY
Rousseau's belief that the government should respond to the demands of the majority; similar to a direct democracy idea
GENERAL WILL
Philosophe that was against cruel and unusual punishment
CESARE BECCARIA
Term for a ruler who believed in Enlightenment ideas while ruling with absolute authority
ENLIGHTENED DESPOT
Another term for an autocratic government
DICTATORSHIP/ABSOLUTE MONARCHY/TYRANNY
Government in which all citizens take part in making decisions
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
Government in which citizens elect representatives to make decisions
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY/REPUBLIC
Monarch of France; also known as the "Sun King"; believed his power came from God
Louis XIV (14th)
Term for a monarch who believed his/her power comes from God
DIVINE RIGHT
Absolute monarch of Russia who westernized Russia whether the nobles wanted it or not
CZAR PETER THE GREAT