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21 Cards in this Set

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Enlightenment?
A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve.
Thomas Hobbes?
Came up with the social contract and believed that if people gave up there rights to there leaders in return the would gain order and law
John Locke?
Had a positive belief in humans. According to him all people were born with three rights: life, liberty and property. He believes it is the governments job to protect these rights and if they dont they should be overruled by the people.
Leviathan?
Book written by Thomas Hobbes expressing his views on absolute government. Also said that people were born wicked and nasty.
Social Contract?
The agreement in which the people gave up there rights in order to gain order and law
Philosophes?
They were social critics in france who believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life
Voltaire?
French philsopher who fought for tolerance, religious beliefs, and freedom of speech. Published over 70 books.
Baron De Montesquieu?
He thought there were three types of government: a monarchy, a republic and despotism. He thought that a government should be ran and elected by the people.
"On the Spirt of Law"?
Wrote by Montesquieu and it outlined how he believed government would be suited for the world
Jean Jacques Rousseau?
Argued other philosophes that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness. Believed that direct democracy was the only way.
"The Social Contract"
States the political philosophes of Rousseau That under a direct democracy government that people would give up some of there freedom for the common good.
Cesare Beccaria?
He believed that laws existed to preserve social order, not to make people pay for there crimes. He complained of them torturing a witness of being cruel throughout the whole trial.
" A serious Proposal to the Ladies"
Written by Mary Astell which tried to improve the statues of women during the enlightenment
Mary Wollstonecraft?
She was a womens activist that said womens education should not be secondary to men and should not be lower. Wrote essays and books such as A vinication of the rights of women.
"A Vindication of the rights of women"
This book written by Wollstonecraft urged women to get into male dominated fields and that womens education is just as important as mens
Denis Diderot?
Published and discovered The encyclopedia
Encyclopedia?
Written by Denis Diderot. It stated the enlightenment views which soon to find out made the church angry.
Enlightened Despots?
Rulers who have absolute power over there government.
Frederick the great of Prussia?
Reforms were made during Frederick the Greats turn in power. He made many changes to freedom of religion. He reduced the amount of censorship and he made education more wide spread throughout Prussia. He also abolished torture through his reform on the justice system.
Catherine the Great of Russia?
Formed a commission to review Russian laws in order to reform them. She thought that allowing religious tolerance and abolishing torture and capital punishment would be good for Russia
Joseph II of Austria?
Introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press. Also thought that freedom of worship was to be supported through out all religions. He sent out a radical form in hopes to make serfs free from slavery.