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914 Cards in this Set

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What are the cardinal signs of pregnancy?
1. Amniotic Vesicle
2. Fetal Slip
3. Fetus
4. Placentomes
Whan can you feel Amniotic Vesicle, Fetal Slip, Fetus?
35 days
Whan can you feel Placentomes?
90 days
Name ways to manage dystocia in bovine.
1. Epidural
2. Stand up
3. C-section
4. Pull
5. Drug Induction
Why do you give an epidural?
To stop straining.
Why do you make the cow stand up?
Get rumen off uterus
What are the 3 P's you should consider before pulling a calf?
Presentation, posture, position
What are the orientations of Presentation?
cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral, lateral.
What are the orientations of Position?
All cranial presentation-decide what part is dorsal:
Dorso-sacral, pubic, ileal(R or L)
What are the orientations of posture?
Limbs: extended, retained, flexed
What do you do if pulling is not successful?
Fetotomy
Where do you place chains on a calf?
Hitch above and below pastern.
Types of fetotomy?
Percutaneous, subcutaneous, decapitation.
What are the approaches for a C-section in a cow?
1. Ventral Midline
2. Left Flank- R. lateral recumbancy
3. Left standing flank
Pros vs cons of Ventral Midline?
Pro- Good exposure
Con- Chance to dehis.
Pro Vs cons on left flank c-section?
Pro- Good restraint
Con- Right lateral- breathing
- Have to elevate uterus
Pro Vs cons on Left standing flank c-section?
Pro- Easiest restraint
DOC for induction of parturition?
Prostaglandin F2- alpha and Dex
What is the first thing you think of when a cow presents with a Fever and fibrinous pneumonia?
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC)
What makes animal susscepitble to Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
Shipping
What is the viral etiology of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
1. Bovine resp syncytial virus
2. IBR (bovine herpes 1)
3. BVD
4. Parainfuenza 3
What is the bacterial etiology of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
1. Manheima hemolytica
2. Past Mult
3. Heamophilus somnus
4. Mycoplasma
5. Arcanobacter pyogenes
What are your necropsy findings with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
Fibrinous pneumonia
Coagulative necrosis
AB treatment for Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
LA200, PPG, TMS, Mictil,Forfenicol
Prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex?
1. LA200 upon arival
2. Seperate ages
3. Wean calves before shipping
4. Vax with Pasteurella and viral
A placenta is considered retained if it is longer than?
24 hours after parturition
What can a retained placenta induce?
post partem metritis
what can retained placenta be confused with?
Ketosis, LDA, RDA, milk fever, peritonitis
Do not give what with retained placenta?
Ecbolic drugs
What are ecbolic drugs?
Prostaglandins, ergots, oxytocin, B2 antagonists
What nutritional status may retained placenta be caused by?
Low selenium and Vitamin E
Treatment of retained placenta?
1. Will expel in 4-6 days on its own
2. Manual
3. LA 200
4. Intra uterine infusion
What are the 3 categories of infertility?
1. Decreased conception rate
2. Fertilization failure
3. Early embryonic death
What factors would cause a decrease in conception rate?
1. Timing
2. Inadequate energy
3. Maternal gene abnormalities
4. Neoplasia
5. Infectious disease
What neoplasia will result in decreased conception rate?
Granulosa Cell tumor
What infectious disease will cause pyometra?
Trichomonas fetus
What infectious disease will cause endometritis and salpingitis?
Campylobacter fetus
What infectious disease will cause Mastitis?
Leptospirosis
What lepto affects bovine?
Lepto interrogans hardjo
What infectious disease will cause papules on vestibule and vulva?
IBR-herpes I
What infectious disease will cause early embryonic death?
BVD, trichomonas, campylobacter.
What disease is only an AI disease and why?
Brucella abortus- cannot penetrate cervix
What infectious disease will cause nodular lesions?
Mycoplasma
What do you culture trichomonas with and how many times?
Diamons media-3x's
What do you collect on Clark's media?
Campylobacter
What disease is the bull an asymptomatic carrier and is often called peter pan?
Trichomonas
How do you manage campylobacter?
Treat bull with dihydrostreptomyacin.
What disease is the cow the carrier?
campylobacter
What are the AI diseases?
Ureaplasma, Hemophilus, Chlamydia, Brucella
How do you prevent AI diseases?
Double Sheath or Double rod pipette.
What are some causes of fertilization failure?
a. Bull semen
b. AI technique
c. Segmental aplasia
d. Intralumenal adhesion
e. Paraovarian cysts
f. Double cervical
g. Persistent hymen
What are some causes of early embryonic death?
a. Trichomo/Campy
b. Heat stress
c. High cortisol
d. Aged gametes
e. Lethal genes
f. Growth implants
What happens if a cow has paraovarian cysts?
Prevents follicle from dropping.
What is the disease of shipping fever?
Pasteurellosis.
What is the etiology of shipping fever?
1. Past Multocida
2. Mannheima hemolytics
Which of the etiologies of shipping fever is the septicemic form of pasteurellosis?
Pasturella Multocida
Which of the etiologies of shipping fever is the Pneumonic form of pasteurellosis?
Mannheima hemolytics
Pasturella Multocida causes
acute fibrinous pneumonia
M. Hemolytica causes
coagulation necrosis
What are Growth implants –
endometrial glands don’t develop properly and creates a toxic environment for embryo
What is the first sign of Pasteurellosis?
Fever
What is the diagnostic test for Pasteurellosis?
ELISA-blood or nasal swab
What is the pathogenesis for Pasteurellosis?
part of normal flora that becomes virulent when the animal is stressed and obtaines a virus in the respiratory complex
What are the Four virulence factors of Pasteurellosis?
a.Fimbriae
b.Polysaccaride capsule
c.LPS (endotoxin)
d.Leukotoxin
Action of fimbriae in Pasteurellosis?
Of organism:enhances colonization in the upper resp tract
MOA of Polysaccaride capsule
– inhibits complement and phagocytosis and inc seg infilatration into the lung
MOA of LPS (endotoxin)?
– directly toxic to bovine endothelium
MOA of Leukotoxin
exotoxin that directly destroys cow’s cells
What part of intestines absorbs?
Villi
What part of intestines secretes?
Crypts
Ages of onset of D+ in calves- in days
< 3 E coli
5-15 Rotavirus
5-21 Coronavirus
5-35 Cryptosprodiosis
5-42 Salmonella
5-15 Clostridium C
> 30 Coccidia
Ages of onset of D+ in pigs- in days
<3 E coli
1-7 Clostridium C
5-25 Coccidiosis
TGE
1-5 w Rotavirus
What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Rotavirus
-Villus tips
-Maldigestion
-Malabsorption
What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Corona virus
-Entire villus destroyed
–More severe D+
What is the mechanism of diarrhea in Cryptosporidiosis?
-villus blunting
–malabsorption,
-maldigestion
Stain for Cryptosporidiosis?
-Acid fast
What causes bloody diarrhea
salmonella T.
What breed is carrier of salmonella?
Dublin
What diarrhea causes "flat calves" and why is it called this?
Cryptosporidiosis-hypoglycemia
What type of coccidia is seen in cows?
Eimeria
Major cause of diarrhea in calves less than 3 days old?
E.coli
Mechanism of pathogenicity for e.coli?
1. enterotoxigenic-K99 fimbriae- attach to mucosal recptors.
2. Stable enterotoxin (ST)- inhibits absorption of villous
3. Inhibits NaCl absorption- loss of Na, CL, Bicarb, K, H20
Type of diarrhea seen with e.coli?
profuse/watery
Chemical profile seen with E.coli?
1. Metabolic acidosis- underperfused kidney
2. Hyperkalemia(cells hypo)
Diagnosis of e.coli
1. CS
2. Fecal bacteriology
What is a Brodie's abcess?
chronic fibrous osteomyelitits and chronic bone abscess
Describe a Brodie's abcess.
form of osteomyelitis that is circumscribed lined w/ granular membrane surrounded by sclerotic bone
Etiology of Brodie's abcess?
•Fusobacterium necrophorum and Actinomyces pyogenes
Iatrogenic SQ injections
mostly caused by?
Actinomyces pyogenes
Where are you supposed to inject cattle?
Middle third of the neck, about 1/3 of the way down instead of the gluteal region.
In abcesses of the jaw: If the abscess is hard all over how do you treat?
Delay treatment until it is softened and pittling of one area is noticeable (called Pointing of the abscess)
What if an abscess is opened and drained prematurely?
Have a tendency to recur
Retropharyngeal abscess
may be caused by?
1. Actinobaccillosis (wooden tongue)
2. Infection entering pharyngeal wound
Liver abscessess caused by?
Actinomyces pyogenes or Fusobacterium necrophorum
Liver abscessess may be due to?
Rumen acidosis
Liver abscessess may cause
1.peritonitis, rupture of a major vessel causing hemorrhage and sudden death, or vena cava thrombosis
-->Vena cava thrombosis may produce pulmonary thromboembolism leading to pulmonary abscess (painful cough, dyspnea w/ rupture of abscesses into blood vessels producing severe and recurrent epistasix and blood out of the mouth)
Explain the clinical features of myocardial abscessess.
Produces a similar clinical picture to chronic vegetative endocarditis, but with a slower temperature rise and slower course
Abscess in the preputial epithelium are caused by?
Actinomyces pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus
M/c breeds to have abscesses in the preputial epithelium?
1.Angus
2.Hereford
3.Bos indicus breeds and crosses
What is pediculosis?
Lice
What are the biting lice?
Anoplura-bovicola(damalina)
Where are the biting lice usually found?
neck, withers, tail head
What are the sucking lice?
- Mallophaga-Hematophiunus eurysternus
- Linognathus
- Solenopotes
Where are the sucking lice usually found?
generalized
Is the life cycle indirect or direct?
entirely on host
What is the cardinal sign for lice infestation?
itching
What is the treatment of lice?
-organophosphurus, pyrethroid, Coumaphos, Diazinon and permethrin
Can you use ivermectin for lice?
Ivermectin injectable gets sucking lice but not biting spp
What is the most common metabolic disorder affecting cattle?
Postparturient paresis
Predispositions to milk fever:
a. Dairy cattle
b. Inc w/age& milk yield
c. High prepartum ca+
d. Low mg+=restricts ability to absorb calcium
e. Estrogens-can inhibit Ca immobilization
f. Low feed intake at part
g. Fatty liver
Postparturient paresis AKA?
Milk fever, hypocalcemia, Eclampsia
Pathophysiology of milk fever?
a.hypocalcemia stimulates PTH which inc kidneys ability to synthesize 1,25, OH2D3 from Vit D3.
b.1,25 OH2D3 stimulates inc gut absorption of Ca and Ca from bone
Clinical signs of milk fever
a. Recumbancy
b. S bend to her neck
c. Incordination, ataxia
d. Dystocia
e. Low Ca, Low Ph and high Mg (even though milk fever is due to low Mg intake
DDx for a recumbant cow are:
a. Acute toxic mastitis paralysis
c. Pelvic fxs
d. Grass tetany
e. Downer cow syndrome
f. Inanition
g. Pregnancy toxemia
h. Acidosis
i. Hypothermia
j. BSE
In acute toxic mastitis you must make sure you do what?
Examen milk in all 4 teats
Calving paralysis due to what?
-Obturator paralysis at L4-L6
-Abduction of hindlimb or straddled
Pelvic fractures may be due to what?
Osteoperosis in dairy cattle-rare
Grass tetany aka?
hypomagnesia
What is inanition
-starvation-lack of food and water.
Pregnancy toxemia is primarily a disease of what?
sheep
What do you see with pregnancy toxemia in cattle when yoe do see it?
1. Starvation
2. Acetonemia- b/c of lack of energy
Treatment of pregnancy toxemia?
1. Slow IV Ca+ borogluconate warmed to body temperature.
Prevention of pregnancy toxemia?
Feed Mg or high anionic diets to prepartum cows.
Metritis-Pyometra complex induced by?
dystocia, retained placenta and milk fever
Why do the listed resasons for Metritis-Pyometra complex cause this?
They cause delayed return to cyclicity
Why is Metritis-Pyometra related?
Metritis will delay involution after calving, and develop into pyometra.
Pathophys of Metritis-Pyometra complex?
If the uterus is still infected after calving and ovulation and CL still develop, the progesterone created by the uterus reduces normal uterine defense mechanisms
Do not use what in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
progesterone
Why do you not want to use prog in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
Defense mechanisms inhibited by progesterone:
a.Decreases protection against purulent infection
b.causes cervix to close tightly
c.reduces myometrial contractions
Etiology of pink eye?
-Moraxella bovis is most common known cause.
-May also be induced by IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) and Mycoplasma bovirhinits and M. laidlawii
Factors contributing to IBK – Infectious Bovine keratoconjunctivits (IBKC)

isolation, Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
· Pedersen’s suggests sulphadimidine IV injection
· Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
UV light, flies and dust
Tx of (IBKC)?
1. isolation
2.Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
3.sulphadimidine IV injection
4.Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
Coccidiosis type in cattle?
Eimeria zuernii and bovis
Coccidiosis occur in what age?
Affects groups of cattle less than one year old
Usual time on onset of coccidiosis
Occurs three or four weeks after groups of purchased calves are mixed or sudden stress of extreme temperature reductions
In Coccidiosis what is the infective stage?
Trophozite
Gi signs of coccidia seen mostly as?
GI hemorrage of cecum
Treatment of coccidia?
a.Sulpha drugs (Albon)
b.Amprolium
Metritis-Pyometra complex induced by?
dystocia, retained placenta and milk fever
Why do the listed resasons for Metritis-Pyometra complex cause this?
They cause delayed return to cyclicity
Why is Metritis-Pyometra related?
Metritis will delay involution after calving, and develop into pyometra.
Pathophys of Metritis-Pyometra complex?
If the uterus is still infected after calving and ovulation and CL still develop, the progesterone created by the uterus reduces normal uterine defense mechanisms
Do not use what in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
progesterone
Why do you not want to use prog in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
Defense mechanisms inhibited by progesterone:
a.Decreases protection against purulent infection
b.causes cervix to close tightly
c.reduces myometrial contractions
Etiology of pink eye?
-Moraxella bovis is most common known cause.
-May also be induced by IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) and Mycoplasma bovirhinits and M. laidlawii
Factors contributing to IBK – Infectious Bovine keratoconjunctivits (IBKC)

isolation, Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
· Pedersen’s suggests sulphadimidine IV injection
· Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
UV light, flies and dust
Tx of (IBKC)?
1. isolation
2.Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
3.sulphadimidine IV injection
4.Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
Coccidiosis type in cattle?
Eimeria zuernii and bovis
Coccidiosis occur in what age?
Affects groups of cattle less than one year old
Usual time on onset of coccidiosis
Occurs three or four weeks after groups of purchased calves are mixed or sudden stress of extreme temperature reductions
In Coccidiosis what is the infective stage?
Trophozite
Gi signs of coccidia seen mostly as?
GI hemorrage of cecum
Treatment of coccidia?
a.Sulpha drugs (Albon)
b.Amprolium
Metritis-Pyometra complex induced by?
dystocia, retained placenta and milk fever
Why do the listed resasons for Metritis-Pyometra complex cause this?
They cause delayed return to cyclicity
Why is Metritis-Pyometra related?
Metritis will delay involution after calving, and develop into pyometra.
Pathophys of Metritis-Pyometra complex?
If the uterus is still infected after calving and ovulation and CL still develop, the progesterone created by the uterus reduces normal uterine defense mechanisms
Do not use what in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
progesterone
Why do you not want to use prog in Metritis-Pyometra complex?
Defense mechanisms inhibited by progesterone:
a.Decreases protection against purulent infection
b.causes cervix to close tightly
c.reduces myometrial contractions
Etiology of pink eye?
-Moraxella bovis is most common known cause.
-May also be induced by IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) and Mycoplasma bovirhinits and M. laidlawii
Factors contributing to IBK – Infectious Bovine keratoconjunctivits (IBKC)

isolation, Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
· Pedersen’s suggests sulphadimidine IV injection
· Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
UV light, flies and dust
Tx of (IBKC)?
1. isolation
2.Abs topically, subconjunctival and parenterally
3.sulphadimidine IV injection
4.Sx – Third eyelid flap (membrana nictitans) to protect ulcerated cornea
Coccidiosis type in cattle?
Eimeria zuernii and bovis
Coccidiosis occur in what age?
Affects groups of cattle less than one year old
Usual time on onset of coccidiosis
Occurs three or four weeks after groups of purchased calves are mixed or sudden stress of extreme temperature reductions
In Coccidiosis what is the infective stage?
Trophozite
Gi signs of coccidia seen mostly as?
GI hemorrage of cecum
Treatment of coccidia?
a.Sulpha drugs (Albon)
b.Amprolium
What is physiologic anestrus?
Normal anestrus
What does the causes of physiologic anestrus include?
1. Pregnancy
2. Postpartum anestrus
3. Prepubertal
Postpartum anestrus is caused by? 60 days, dairy will cycle back in 18 days
3. Prepubertal – not reached puberty yet; should be cycling by the time 65% of body weight
Suckling of the calf
How long does it take for beef cattle to cycle back after parturition?
45-60 days
How long does it take for dairy cattle to cycle back after parturition?
18 days
When do cows begin their first cycle?
-Should be cycling by the time 65% of body weight
Causes of abnormal anestrus?
1. Nutrition
2. Cystic ovaries
3. Free martin
4. Ovarian hypoplasia
5. Retained fetal membr
6. Dystocia
7. Milk fever
8. Excess feeding
9. Metritis and pyomet
What happens with cystic ovaries?
-not enough GnRH from hypothalmus
-not enough LH receptors on ovary
- not producing or releasing LH;
Treatment for cystic ovaries?
1.GnRH or hCG to create luteal tissue-->give PGF2 alpha 10 days later to destroy luteal tissue
-If continues put on progesterone to suppress the hypothalmus and create a hyperactive state when progesterone is removed
Why do you see pyometra-metritis complex in anestral cows?
-due to prolonged progesterone production and decrease in uterus defense mechanisms
What are the two types of bloat?
Free gas and frothy
Clinical signs of bloat?
a. Severe distention of Left paralumbar fossa
b. Respriatory distress
c. Circulatory compromise
d. Death
What is Secondary Rumen tympany?
Free Gas Bloat
What are some reasons Free Gas Bloat occurs?
Esophageal obstruction or interference with eructation
How do you usually distinguish free gas bloat from frothy bloat?
Usually only one animal is affected with free gas bloat.
Free gas bloat is usually caused secondary to?
a. Vagal dysfunction
b. Impaction/ choke
c. Abscess
d. Tumor or enlarged LN
e. Choke
f. Milk fever
g. Tetanus
h. Rumen acidosis
i. Rumenitis
Vagal dysfunction can be caused by?
1.omasal or pyloric transport failure
2. salmonella
Treatment of free gas bloat?
1. Pass a stomach tube
2. Only when a tube won’t go down put in a rumen fistula or trocar to relieve tension
Is frothy Bloat (Primary Rumen tympany)more common or gas bloat?
Primary is more common
Frothy Bloat is associated with?
- pasture feeding – legumes such as alfalfa, clover or green chop
Is frothy bloat relieved by passing a stomach tube?
No-(a trochar and cannula will become blocked if used)
Treatment of frothy bloat?
1. Tx is given when froth is seen on stomach tube of surfactants (Therabloat), mineral oil
2. May perform an emergency rumenotomy in the middle of the sublumbar fossa.
Name the many causes of Downer Cow Syndrome.
1. Mastitis, milk fever or metritis
2.Injury to spine or legs
3. LSA infiltration to spinal canal
4.Toxic infectious
5.Compartmental syndrome
6.Crush syndrome
7.Pressure syndrome 8.Calving paralysis
What is the chemistry picture in a cow with Mastitis, milk fever or metritis?
– due to Decreased Ca, P, Mg & K
Whatshould you observe in cows with Mastitis, milk fever or metritis?
LOOK AT THE VAGINA AND TEATS
Injury to spine or legs should you be worried about in downer cows?
sacroiliac or coxofemoral luxation, or pelvic fx
What do you do to diagnose injuries in downer cows?
NEED RECTAL PALPATION
In Compartmental syndrome and a downer cow what happens?
increased pressure develops in an osteofascial compartment
In downer cows what happens in Crush syndrome?
– release of myoglobin from muscle damage
What is Pressure syndrome ?
-ischemic necrosis if cow is sitting in same position for 6 hours or more
What is damaged in Calving paralysis?
– obturator or sciatic nerve damage
What are the treatment measures for downer cows?
1.Good nursing care – soft bedding, physical therapy, hoist, Aqua Cow (best for muscles)
2. Prognosis decreases dramatically each day she is down
3.Avoid IM injections b/c of muscle damage
What are many causes of abortion in cows?
1. Salmonella dublin
2. Listeriosis
3. Brucelosis abortus
4. Campylobacteriosis
5. Leptospirosis hardjo and pomona – mainly pomona in US
6. Candidia
7. BVD
8. IBR
9. Tritrichomonas
10. PGF2 before day 150
11. Toxic plants
12. Braddica
13. Trauma/stress
14. Fusarium spp
15. Nutrition
16. Twin pregnancy
17. Genetics
What Toxic plants cause abortion?
Ponderosa Pine, Broomweed, Montery cypress, Sumpweed
What is the MOA of Braddica?
Inhibits iodine into thyroxine inducing a hypothyroidism
Samples submited of aborted feti should include?
Entire aborted calf w/ associated fetal membranes
The ticks that infest cattle are:
1.Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis
2. Anaplasma marginale
-Boophilus – Texas Cattle fever tick
-Argas – fowl tick
-Dermacentor variablis – American dog tick
-Ixodes scapularis – Black legged tick
-Rhipicecephalus sanguineus – Brown dog tick
3.Epizootic bovine abortion – Spirochete; Ornithodorus coriaceus
4.Theileria – foreign countries
What transmits Texas Cattle fever?
Boophilus
What transmits RMSF?
Dermacentor variablis – American dog tick
What is a host for babesia canis?
Rhipicecephalus sanguineus – Brown dog tick
What transmits Epizootic bovine abortion ?
Ornithodorus coriaceus
Ticks in general serve as intermediate hosts for?
Babesia, Thelieria and Cytauxzoon
Ticks in general serve as vectors for?
RMSF and lyme
What is the general term for flies?
Myiasis
Simuliidae flies are aka?
blackflies or buffalo flies
Where are Simuliidae flies mostly found?
around swiftly flowing streams
Simuliidae flies intermediate hosts for?
Leukocytozoon, Onchocerca
Simuliidae flies vectors for?
EEE and vesicular stomatitis
What are Phlebotomus?
Old world sand flies
What are Phlebotomus intermediate hosts for?
Leishmania
Vector for bluetongue?
Cullicoides – biting midges
What are Tabanus?
horseflies
Tabanus are carriers of what?
– anthrax, anaplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, EIA, tularemia, ricketsial
Name the species of Deerflies?
– Chrysops, hematopota, Pangonia
What transmitts pinkeye? (Moraxella bovis)
Face fly – Musca autumalis
What transmits Thelazia eradesii?
Face fly – Musca autumalis
What is Thelazia ?
Eyeworm
What is the species of stable flies?
Stomoxys calcitrans; Habronema musca
What is a Glossina?
Tsetse fly
What does a Tsetse fly transmit?
Trypanosoma
What is a species of horn flies?
Haematobia irritans, Siphoma irritans
What do Heel flies cause?
gadding; cattle gallop madly to water; Warbles
What is the species name of a heel fly?
Hypoderma bovis and lineatium;
Hypodermatosis aka? • Look like bumble bees
• Life cycle
ae. Produce large domed nodules under the skin on either side of the spine and produce a ventral breathing pore
f. In the spirng the larva emerge from the cyst and fall to the ground and pupate
• Cattle should NOT be treated between December and March b/c the larva are migrating through the esophagus or spinal cord and can cause bloat or paralysis if killed then.
Warbles or Grubs
Etiology of Hypodermatosis?
Hypoderma bovis and lineatum from heel flies.
Heel flies that transmit hypoderma look like what?
Look like bumble bees
What is the lifecycle of heel flies?
1.In the spring and lay eggs on lower legs of cow in a row of six or more on a hair
2. Cattle becomes irritated by the flies and will “Gadding” or gallop madly to water
3. Eggs hatch in 4 days and crawl to skin surface and penetrate to C.T. and migrate to esophagus (lineatum) or spinal canal and epidural fat (bovis)
4. Remain here for autumn and winter
Which species of hypoderma will migrate to esophagus/spinal canal?
-esophagus (lineatum)
-spinal canal and epidural fat (bovis)
In treatment of hypoderma when would you not want to treat?
•Cattle should NOT be treated between December and March b/c the larva are migrating through the esophagus or spinal cord and can cause bloat or paralysis if killed then.
What are the four biggest criteria in BSE of bulls?
1.PE
2.Minumum scrotal circumference based on age
3.Minimum progressive motility of sperm of 30%
4.Minimum morphology of 70% normal cells
Do a BSE when ?
60 days prior to breeding season
What on the sheath will you look for in BSE?
hematomas, lacerations, abscesses, adhesions
What on the penis will you look for in BSE?
papillomas, hair rings, persistent frenulum
What do you check in a bull BSE per rectum?
• Rectal exam:
a.Urethralis muscle – covering the urethra, massage to feel pulsations
b.Prostate – firm like a wedding band
c.Vesicular glands – most problems here
d.Ampullae – enlarged end of the vas deferens near the urethra
e.Internal inguinal rings – not larger than 3 finger sizes
f.Bladder, kidneys, LN, peritoneum, omentum
Most problems in bulls occur where?
Vesicular glands
Internal inguinal rings on BSE must be?
not larger than 3 finger sizes
What are the size of testicles supposed to be based on age?
-1 year old-at least 30 cm
-2 years old-at least 34 cm
What anatomy should you be able to locate in the Epididymis for a BSE?
1. head is readily palpable at proximal pole of testicle on anteriolateral surface
(sperm granulomas found here)
2. tail on distal pole
Where are sperm granulomas normally found?
head of epididymis
What anatomy should you be able to locate in the Ductus deferens for a BSE?
– 2-3 mm cord ascending on medial surface of testicle
What criteria must be met as far as sperm evaluation on a BSE?
•Electroejaculation
a.Evaluate libido
b.Minimum progressively motile sperm is 30%
c.Should have only 1-2 spheroids (immature sperm that are large, grainy & non-segmented nucleus)
d.Classify as normal, Primary, or secondary
Primary classification of sperm means?
-head or midpiece or tail rolled; bigger problem b/c can compete with normal sperm
Seconday classification of sperm means?
- tail or loose, normal head
Abaxial attachment of sperm confirmation is problem in?
-ruminants only
What is the abomasal diseases?
LDA. RDA. ulcers
Normal anatomy On left side of bovine include?
-mostly rumen with some abomassum and most of reticulum
Normal anatomy On right side of bovine include?
1.Liver: covers the omassum, with the abomassum and reticulum below
2. The descending duodenum immediately in the right paralumbar fossa
Describe local anesthesia in the bovine.
a.Line block – Inverted L; T13, L1 & L2
b.Regional – Over and under L1, L2 and L4
List causes of a ping on the left side:
1.LDA – variable pitch ping
2.Gas cap on rumen
3.Pneumoperitonitis
4.Rumen void
LDA type of ping?
– variable pitch ping b/c of peristalsis
Is an LDA torsion?
NO
M/C breed with LDA?
Dairy
Cause of LDA?
Could be...
-Can have concurrent disease (milk fever, metritis, mastitis, hardware, ketosis, fatty liver, abomasal ulcers)
Clinical findings of LDA?
a.Off feed/ dec milk
b.Variable pitch ping on left side
c.Ballotment
Where is ping located in LDA?
Left-sided ping between ribs 9-13
Which is more common: LDA or RDA?
LDA
Treatment of LDA?
a.Rolling – put on right side, and tie Grymer Sterner toggle suture loosely while cow is in dorsal recumbancy
b.Left flank laparotomy
-Preplace abomaspexy suture in Ford continuous pattern w/ Braunamid cranial from pylorus
-Decompress gas in abomassum
-Blindly put sutures between xyphoid and milk well and tie the sutures
-Explore abdomen last
-Contraindicated in occult LDA (has gone away); will have a low ping line
c.Right flank laparotomy
-will see duodenum first
-Explore the abdomen first
-Decompress abomassum completely
-Pull abdomassum around
Is RDA displacement?
No- dilation and torsion
Which one comes first? Dilitation or Torsion.
Dilitation
Clinical signs of RDA?
a. Dec rumination and contractions and fecal quantity
b. Distension of right flank
c. Inc HR
d. Signs become peracute once torsion occurs
e.Cold extremities and extreme dullness (shock)
f.Ping on right side
g.Metabolic alkalosis b/c of loss of Cl ions
LDA and RDA are most common in?
Dairy cattle
When are dairy cattle more prone to LDA and RDA and Why?
-Within one month of parturition or prepartum. Due to hypocalcemia resulting in abomosal atony.
What kind of chemistry picture do you see with LDA and RDA and why?
-metabolic alkalosis
-hypochloremia
-hypokalemia
-due to sequestration of acid, chlorine and potassium in abomasum.
What is a poor prognostic sign when dealing with LDA and RDA?
Diarrhea
Differentials for left pings?
1. LDA
2. pneumoperitoneum
3. atonic rumen.
Differentials for right pings?
1.Spiral colon
2. rectum/colon
3. RDA, RAV (palpable).
Who is predisposed to abomasal impaction?
Pregnant beef cattle in winter with poor quality feed.
Abomasal ulcers are most common in?
high-producing dairy cows in first 6 weeks of production.
Why do abomasal ulcers happen?
1.Stress decreases protective prostaglandins
2. Hypocuprosis (low copper)
3. LSA in older cattle
Ulceration occur where in abomasum?
-Ulceration at the ventral portion of the fundic region of the greater curvature.
Clinical signs of abomasal ulcers?
See melena, anorexia, occult blood, abdominal pain.
How do you tell between bleeding ulcers and perforating ulcers?
-Bleeding ulcers don’t perforate and perforating ulcers don’t bleed.
Perforating ulcers seen in?/bleeding ulcers seen in?
Perforating-calves
Bleeding- adults
How do you treat RDA?
a.Correcting dilatation without torsion is much easier
b.Reports of metochlopramide to tx dilatation w/o torsion
c.IV fluids w/ Ringers or isotonic (lactated ringers Nabicarb should not be used) b/c of loss of Cl- ions
d.Right standing laparotomy technique:
-decompress w/ 12 g needle, the direction of the torsion should be identified and an attempt made to correct the torsion w/out removing the fluid
-Perform abomasopexy as LDA
Teat/udder injury is usually colonized by?
Staph and Strept aggalacita
You can repair a teat laceration surgically if?
within 12 hours
IBR – Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis etiology?
Bovine herpes virus –1
Source of infection of IBR?
nasal, eye, vaginal or preputial discharge, semen and fetal tissue
IBR Spread via?
aerosol or venereally
IBR is what type of infection?
1. Latent infection – shed during times of stress
2. Respiratory dz
3. Reproductive dz
4. Alimentary DZ
Respiratory symptoms of IBR?
a.Most common manifestation
b.Mild, subacute, acute to peracute
c.Discharge out of nose
d.Mild rise in temp
e.Short, expressive cough
f.Rapid and shallow breathing
Reproductive symptoms of IBR?
a.Infectious pustular vulvovagintits – discharge of pus from vulva
b.Infectious bovine penoposthitis – purulent discharge form prepuce
c.Endometritis
d.Abortion
Alimentary symptoms of IBR?
– newborn calves due to FPT
- CNS – calves less thant six months old; rare
- Inclusion bodies may be seen
Acetonimia (Ketosis) is seen most commonly in?
High yielding lactating cows
Ketosis caused by what in general?
1. Negative energy balance
2. LOW proprionic acid or
3. HIGH butyric acid
CS of ketosis?
1. Dec milk yield
2. Wt loss
3. Inappetance
4. Nervous signs
Pathophys of ketosis?
a.Negative energy balance causes the mobilization of fat reserves to meet the energy deficit
b.Fatty acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA, which enter the citric acid cycle
c.Medium and short chain Fatty acids enter the mitochondria (long chain Fas are bound to Carnitine from lysine and methionine)
d. Beta oxidation removes two carbons from the FA to produce a lot of energy
e.If there is a decrease in acetyl CoA entering the citric acid cycle b/c of dec supply of glucose metabolites, OR if there is an accumulation of acetyl CoA, then more acetate is formed in the liver. The ability of the tissues to oxidize the ketones is soon exceeded and they accumulate in the blood
What are the Ketone bodies and their function?
-Acetate - ketogenic
-Butyrate – ketogenic
-Proprionate – glucogenic
Physical diagnosis of ketosis in bovine?
-Sweet smell (pear drops) of acetone on breath and in milk
Treatment of ketosis?
a.500 mL of 50% dextrose
b.Propylene glycol
c.One dose of steroids to increase appetitie and increase glucose
d.Monensin – 300-500 mg SID PO; selects for proprionic acid
Prevention of ketosis?
a.Prevent excess fat at calving
b.Good transition
c.Niacin
d.Dec Cereal grain silaages containing high butyric acid
Calf coronavirus affects what age?
• More watery and more severe than rotavirus
• Loss of Na, K, Cl and bicarb
• Yellow, watery feces
• Effects entire villus – malabsorption
1-3 weeks old
Differentiate Calf coronavirus from rota.
More watery and more severe than rotavirus
Chemistry picture of coronavirus.
Loss of Na, K, Cl and bicarb
What type of diarrhea is seen with coronavirus?
1.Effects entire villus – malabsorption
2.Yellow, watery feces
Traumatic reticulopericarditis aka?
Hardware disease
What is most likely cause of penetration in hardware dz?
Ruminal and reticular contraction the wire penetrates until it reaches the peritoneum
Sequela of penetration in hardware dz?
A.A localized peritonitis occurs causing a local abscess and adhesion
2.The diaphragm and pericardium may be punctured
Clinical signs of hardware dz?
a. Anorexia
b. Dec milk production
c.Arched back and tucked abdomen
d.Grunt positive, scootch negative
e.Fever
f.Shallow resp (may even look like pneumonia)
g.Jugular pulse
h.Muffled heart sounds – splashing and tinkling sounds over the heart
i.Secondary ketosis
Treament of hardware dz?
Tx and prognosis depends on whether or not pericarditis is present
a.Magnet or sx if pericarditis is NOT present
b.If it is present, then immediate slaughter must be recommended
Cystic follicular degeneration can be caused by?

• Will not have a crown or papillair
• Uteruse is flacid when has a cyst, but may have a CL on other ovary or may even be pregnancy
• More common in dairy cows during high lactation (rare in heifers or beef cattle)
• Biggest sign is anestrus
• Tx:
a. Give GnRH or hCG to create luteal tissue, give PGF2 10 days later to destroy luteal tissue
b. If cyst is still there, put on progesterone to suppress the hypothalamus, then remove progesterone and hypothalamus becomes hyperactive and proeduces GnRH on own
a.Not enough GnRH from hypothalamus
b.Not enough LH receptors on ovary
c.Not producing or releasing LH from pituitary
Types of Cystic follicular degeneration?
1. Can be luteal (thick walled)
2. Or thin walled (follcular cyst)
Gross description of follicular cysts?
1. Will not have a crown or papillair
2.Uterus is flacid when has a cyst, but may have a CL on other ovary or may even be pregnant
Follicular cysts most common in?
- Dairy cows during high lactation (rare in heifers or beef cattle)
Biggest sign of Follicular cysts?
anestrus
Treatment of follicular cysts?
a.Give GnRH or hCG to create luteal tissue, give PGF2-alpha 10 days later to destroy luteal tissue
b.If cyst is still there, put on progesterone to suppress the hypothalamus, then remove progesterone and hypothalamus becomes hyperactive and proeduces GnRH on own
Causes of early embryonic death?
a.heat stress
b.high cortisol (stress)
c.Endometritis - A pyogenes, Campylobacter fetus, Ureaplasma, H somnus, Tritrichomonas fetus, IBR
d.Aged gametes
e.Trauma from hand of palpator
f.Lethal genes
g.Growth implants – endometrial glands don’t devleop properly when embryo embeds in uterus, has toxic envirnonment ito embryo
Most common bovine neoplasm?
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (cancer eye)
Contributing factors to Squamous Cell Carcinoma?
a.Long term exposure to intensive sunlight
b.Herford most common breed (lack of pigment or melanin around eye)
c.IBR
d.Dust
e.Flies
f.High level of nutrition
MC breed of cattle w/ SCC?
hereford
Treatment of SCC?
a. Sx excise, enuc
b. Cryosurgery
c. Hyperthermia
d. Radiation therapy
e. Immunotherapy
Bovine rotavirus m/c in what age?
Calves at about 10 days old
Describe feces in rotavirus?
Yogurt-like feces
What type of villous damage does rota cause?
Fuses and stunts tips of villi causing columnar epithelium to become cuboidal or squamous oreven completely flat
Prevention of rota?
- dam vaccination
DX rota
-virus antigen in feces
– examine for affected calves and for normal calves and compare b/c healthy calves can excrete the virus
Laminitis caused by?
1. Poor perfusion to the claw
2. Rumen acidosis is mc cause
3. Fatty liver can detoxify endotoxins
CS of laminitis?
a. Arched back
b. Front legs are crossed and hind legs wide apart.
c. Shifts weight, painful walking
d. Inc HR and RR
e. Warm hooves
Laminitis mc in what feet?
Lateral hind claws
What disease can healthy calves transmit?
Rota
What is tha pathophys of laminitis?
Locally released mediators in inflammation and perfusuion in capillary circulation causing degeneration of the stratum germinatinum
Treatment of laminitis?
a.Alter initial process – mastitis, endometritis, lactic acidosis
b.Abs
c.Bute and banamine
d.Soft bedding
e.Warm water bats
f.Steroids
g.Corrective shoeing
h.Sulphur-containing aas
i.Claw blocks
What is the Hamophilus comnus complex?
Part of respiratory complex
Hamophilus comnus complex most commonly affects?
feedlot cattle
Hamophilus comnus complex characterized by?
1. pleuritis
2. myocarditis
3. pneumonia
Hamophilus comnus complex cs?
• Clinical signs:
a. Fever
b. Ataxia
c. Joint swelling
d. Fundic lesions
e. Weakness
f. Recumbency
g. Death
h. meningoencephalitis i. pleuropneumonia
j. myocarditis septicemia)
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus causes what?
• Causes necrosisi of type I pneumocytes and type II pneumocytes show hypertrophy, hyperplasia and syncytial formation
-viral pneumonia in dairy and beef calves under 6 months old
Diagnosis of Bovine respiratory syncytial virus?
1. virus isolation
2. TTW in early stages
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus damages what in the lung?
1. necrosis of type I pneumocytes
2. type II pneumocytes show hypertrophy, hyperplasia and syncytial formation
*****Cornybacterium spp******
*****Cornybacterium spp******
Which cornybac causes mastitis?
Corynebacterium bovis
Contagious Bovine Pyelonephritis Causes?
pyelonephritis or balanoposthitis
What causes Contagious Bovine Pyelonephritis Causes?
Corynebacterium renale
Corynebacterium renale found where on bovine?
Found on vagina or prepuce of carrier animals
Corynebacterium renale spread by?
trauma (breeding or catheterization)
Corynebacterium renale most pathogenic type?
Type I and III
Corynebacterium renale Clinical findings ?
-hematuria, pyuria, colic, straining to urinate, fever
- inc Crea and urea
- pH urine alkaline (> 8.5)
What make Corynebacterium renale cross with when testing for disease in?
Johne’s
Diagnosis of Corny renale?
Culture urine
Tx for corny renale?
PPG for 3 wks
Corny renale can also cause what?
Enzootic Posthitis; Pizzle Rot; Balanoposthitis
More common species for Enzootic Posthitis?
sheep
CS of Enzootic Posthitis?
Pustules and scabs at preputial orfice
Vectors of Enzootic Posthitis?
Flies are mechanical vectors
Ulcerative Lymphangitis of horses and cattle caused by?
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Clinical picture of horse or cow with Ulcerative Lymphangitis?
-Lymphangitis of lower limbs
-Usually in work horses
- Cattle have lymph node enlargement
**Staphylococcal species**
**Staphylococcal species**
Staph that causes mastitis?
Staph aureus
Defining property of staph aureus?
coagulase positive
Primary cs seen in infection with s. aureus?
abnormal milk
How many tests do you run to be 100% positive cow is s. aureus free?
3
Common cause of infection with S. aureus?
Heiffers fed milk and turned into herd
Treatment of S.aureus?
1. will go into remission if left untreated
2. Dry cow therapy most effective
What is a coagulase (-) staph?
all others
Source of coag (-) staph?
-environment
-normal inhabitant of skin
What causes a causes a chemical rumenitis ?
Lactic acidosis
Chemical rumenitis can induce what?
This can induce a mycotic rumenitis w/ (Mucor, Rhizopus and Absidia) 4-6 days later
MOA of mycotic rumenitis
-invade the ruminal vessels and cause a thrombosis and infarction
-Hepatic abscesses can result b/c F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes
Umbillical hernias
Most common in?
Holstein or Fresian (dominant, or recessive)
Uncomplicated Hernia?
omentum, intestine or abomassum, completely reducible w/ ring; no systemic signs
Fibrous core Hernia?
-abscess
– one part will be reducible, the other will not
Omphalophelbitis
umbillical vein, connects to liver
Omphaloarteritis
umbillical artery
Urachal abscess?
– most common, abscess in urachus
Umbillical abscess?
– feels warm, painful, non-reducible, firm; no hernia ring palpated; systemic signs seen; lance, drain and flush
Enlarged umbillical stalk?
-usually only cosmetic issue; usually secondary to omphalitis, persistent patent urachus, or post tx w/ chemical retraint
What is your diagnosis... A firm coarse cauliflower like lesion on the head, neck, and udder of a cow?
Papillomatosis
What strains of papilloma are seen in bovine?
1-5
What types of papilloma virus will spontaneosly regress?
I and II
Treatment of papilloma virus?
-Cryosurgery or cold steel surgery
-Lithium antimony thiomalate 6% solution 15 mL by deep IM injection every other day 4-6 times
Primary condition you must differentiate from papillomatosis?
Interdigital fibroma
Interdigital fibroma is mc in?
sheep
Treatment of Interdigital fibroma?
If detected early, sx removal (cryosurgery and electrocautery) is successful
Hairy foot warts Aka?
Bovine digital dermatitis, Papillomatosis digital dermaitis, Mortellaro’s dz, Foot warts, heel warts
MC area Hairy foot warts are found?
Between the heel bulbs of the plantar surface at the junction of skin and periople
Appearance of Hairy foot warts?
Red, granular appearance
Hairy foot warts most common in?
dairy cattle
Etilogy of Hairy foot warts ?
Spirochetes (Treponema denticola)
CS of hairy foot warts?
Causes lameness, wt loss, dec milk production
Treatment of hairy foot warts?
Tx is topical....
-oxytetracycline and bandaging
-Footbaths w/ tetracycline, lincomycin, spectinomycin, or 5% Cu sulfate can be used for control, but must be watched for contamnation
What are the 3 types of Ostertagia ostertagi?
Type I, Type II, Hypobiosis
Type I Ostertagia ostertagi cs?
-profuse watery D+ of calves on grass
Type I Ostertagia caused by?
-Caused by immature adults leaving the gastric glands
Type I Ostertagia ostertagi found where and when?
-Fall in the north; winter in south
Type II Ostertagia disease predilection?
-Yearlings following their first season of grazing
Type II Ostertagia ostertagi caused by?
-Caused by arrested L4 resuming development after hypobiosis
Type II Ostertagia ostertagi found where and when?
-Spring in north; fall in the south
What is hypobiosis with Ostertagia ostertagi?
-L4 accumulate in gastric glands b/c of harsh weather conditions
Hypobiosis seen what time of year?
-Winter in the north, Summer in the south
Pathophys of infection in hypobiosis?
-Animal ingests L3 and encysted larvae invade the gastric gland of the abomassum causing a ‘morrocan leather’ appearance. The gastric glands (parietal- HCL and chief – pepsinogen) are affected and the tight junctions that maintain the integrity of the epithelial sheet in diminished.
•The alkaline pH in the abomassum causes bacterial overgrowth and hypoproteinemia b/c of lack of pepsinogen.
Ostertagia ostertagi tx?
Tx: ivermectin, doramectin and moxidectin
***Lactic Acidosis***
***Lactic Acidosis***
Lactic acidosis aka?
-Acute CHO engorgement, rumen overload
Lactic acidosis caused by?
- Ingestion of large amounts of highly fermentable CHO (cereal gains, corn, grapes, apples)
Pathophys of LA?
-The increase in CHO causes a marked change in microes, specifically Streptococcus bovis which utilize the CHO to produce large quantities of lactic acid, causing the rumen pH to be < 5. This causes destruction of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen. Both D and L forms of lactic acid are produced. This increases ruminal osmolality and water is drawn in from the circulation, causing hemoconcentration and dehydration. L lactic acid is utilized much more rapidly than D, so it accumulates and causes a severe D-lactic acidosis.
Clinical signs of Lactic acidosis?
a. Profuse D+ w/ sweet/sour odor of feces – may have undigested kernels
b. Anorexia
c. Depression
d. Dehydration
e. Rumen stasis
f. Ataxia leading to recumbency
g. Fluid splashing sounds on ballotment\
Complications of Lactic acidosis? (3 Ls)
a.Liver abscess – Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacter pyogenes from rumenitis break down of vessels
b.Laminitis – unknown pathogenesis
c.Lactic acidosis
d.Fungal hepatitis – Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia
Clin path of Lactic acidosis?
a.Ruminal fluid pH < 5
b.Rumen microbes abscent
c.Dehydration
d.Hypocalcemia – temproary malabsorption
e.Hypochloride – loss of serum Cl due to sequestration in the rumen
f.Hyperphosphatemia – renal failure
g. inc blood lactate
Tx of Lactic acidosis if animal is found engorging herself (before clinical signs)?
a.Off water for 12-24 hours
b.Offer good quality hay at ½ day ration
c.Exercise every hour for 12-24 hours to encrouage movement of ingesta through GI tract
Tx of Lactic acidosis if animal is showing clinical signs?
a.Rumenotomy – severe cases; empty rumen w/ a siphon and replace with cud transfer and few handfuls of hay
b.Sodium bicarb – systemic acidosis
c.Rumen lavage – rubber tube and warm water pumped in until obvious distension of L paralumbar fossa, then empty via gravity
d.Alkalinizing agents – Mg hydroxide or Mg oxide pumped into rumen, then kneading to promote mixing
e.Antihistamines form lamintits
f.NSAIDs – shock therapy
g.Thiamin or brewer’s yeast to promote metabolism of lactic acid
h.Parasympathomimetics – Ach-like effect, cholinergic drugs; stimulates smooth muscle contraction
- Choline
- Ach
- Methacholine
- Carbachol
- Bethanechol
- Pilocarpine
i. Ca borogluconage – tx hypocalcemia
In LA you have hypocalcemia due to what?
- temporary malabsorption
In LA you have hypochloride due to what?
loss of serum CL sue to sequesterization in rumen.
In LA you have hyperphosphatemia due to what?
renal failure
What are some alkalinizing drugs you can use in LA?
MG hydroxide and MG oxide
Antihistamines must be used with precaution because they can cause what?
laminitis
What can be used as shock therapy in cattle?
NSAIDS
What can be used to promote metabolism of lactic acid?
Thiamin or brewers yeast
What do you use to treat hypoglycemia?
Ca borogluconate.
BVD etiology?
RNA pestivirus
BVD related to?
Hog Cholera and Border dz
2 genotypes of BVD.
Type I (Ia & Ib) and Type II
Most BVD are type ?
Type I
2 biotypes of BVD?
Cytopathic – cell death in culture
b.Noncytopathic – does not cause death in culture
Naïve animals exposed to BVD will show?
a. D+
b. Fevere
c. inc RR
d. dec milk production
e. Abortions, EED; fetal wastage
Fetus with BVD will show?
a. Micro-phthalmia
b. Juvenile cataracts
c. Cerebellar hypoplasia
d. Arthroporosis
e. Curly hair coat – like border dz in sheep
BVD is a primary virus to set up secondary infection of what?
-Mannheimia and Pasteurella along w/ stress and shipping
Persistently infected animals are those that are what?
– calf exposed in utero
Persistently infected animals are caused by and what happens?
a.Noncytopathic biotype exposure to cow at < 150 days of gestation
b.Could abort, develop congenital lesions, develop persistent infection, or nothing could occur
PI infected animals are what clinically- how do they present?
-Smaller, chronic poor-dooers or could be normal
Mucosal Disease is what?
-When persistently infected aniamsl are expposed to a cytopathic virus you get ‘mucosal dz’
Mucosal dz Looks similar to?
Looks similar to Foot and Mouth
Mucosal dz must be similar strain of ?
NCP and CP
Mucosal dz pathophys?
1. Can be induced by modified live vaccine, mutation inside the calf changes from NCP to CP, or animal gets an acute infection of CP
Dx of BVD?
a. Virus isolation on whole blood
b. Test poor doers
c. Test again in 3 weeks
d. Ear notching – punch biopsy IMHC (immunohistochemistry)
e. If BVD +, then test every animal via virus isolation or ear notch. Cull all +; retest when born.
f. Retest w/in a year and cull the positive
g. Herd screening - >5 months old calves b/c after maternal antibodies but has not been vaccinated yet; “Canary in the mineshaft”
Prevention of BVD?
a.Vaccinate w/ killed or MLV
b.Close the herd – test incoming pregnant heifers via ear notch and test fetus when born; isolate her until she gives birth and then quarantine for 3 weeks
Clostridial enterotoxemia etiology?
Clostridium perfringens types B,C & E (Beta toxin)
Enterotoxemia causes what?
-Enterotoxemia in calves, lambs, foals and piglets
Enterotoxemia occurs in calves how old?
5-15 days old
The beta toxin is readily inactivated by what? and so what happens?
-trypsin, but b/c the young animal has absence of mature flora, C. perfringens colonizes
Carefule because of what with enterotoxemia?
bacteria can for spores
CS of enterotoxemia?
D+, abdominal pain, nervous signs (tetany, opisthotonos); Violent bellowing and aimless running
Localized lesions seen with what type of enterotoxemia?
Type B
More extensive lesions seen with what type of enterotoxemia?
Type C
Treatment enterotoxemia?
Tx is hyperimmune serum
Prevention enterotoxemia?
All pregnant animals should be vaccinated to provide colostral immunity to babies.
-Antiserum will protect susceptible animals and is give immediately after birth
Omphalitis AKA?
Navel ill
Is inflammation on th external aspects of the umilicus or internal aspects?
External
Age mc for navel ill?
w/in 2-5 days of birth and often persists for several weeks
Tx naval ill
surgical excision
Winter dysentery etiology?
Bovine corona virus
Predisposing factors to Winter dysentery?
-Northern climates
-Adult lactating dairy cows during winter months
CS of Winter dysentery?
-Explosive D+ affecting almost entire herd w/in several days
-May have mild respiratory signs
DX Winter dysentery?
-Detection of virus in feces (ELISA)
TX/Prevention winter dysentery?
No tx or control available
Calves bellowing aggressively and aimlessly wandering, what is your dx?
enterotoxemia
Explosive diarrhea affecting entire herd, what is your dx?
Winter dysentery
Fat Cow syndrome aka?
Fatty liver
Overall MOA Fat Cow syndrome?
-Mobilization of excessive body fat to liver during periods of negative energy balance at time of parturition or in early lactation in dairy and beef cows
Predisposition to Fat Cow syndrome?
a. High producing dairy cows
b.Over-conditioned beef cows just before or after calving (when energy intake suddenly decreases)
c.Twins
d.Lead or challenge feeding during dry period
e.Milk fever, detosisi and LDA can complicate fatty liver
f.Starvation diet of dry cows right before calving b/c farmer thinks is too fat which may increase dystocia (untrue)
Is this disease(Fat Cow syndrome) fatal?
Highly
Pathogenesis of Fat Cow syndrome?
-After calving there is a large increase in fat accumulation in the liver; b/c of the metabolic demands of lat pregnancy and early lactation, there is a gradual increase in NEFAs (nonesterfied FA) and glucose during final days of gestation and a decrease in BHBA (betahydroxyburtyrate).
-Immediately after parturition, there is an increase in energy demands. This causes a mobilization of fat from body reserves (SQ fat) to the blood which transports fat to the body tissues (particularly the liver) but also muscle and kidney
a. inc NEFAs and glucose and dec BHBA pre-parturition
b.inc energy demands immediately after parurtion
c.Mobilization of fat from SQ fat to blood to liver, muscle and kidney
d.If there is a decreases in energy intake (she can’t eat enough or there is not enough food) then there is an excess mobilization of FFAs to the liver
e.Hepatic lipogeneissi – enlarged hepatocytes, dec liver glycogen, inadequate lipoprotein transport
f.Most lipids in the liver are triacylglycerols b/c inc NEFAs and inc deacylglycerol acyltransferase (enzyme activated by FA)
g.May be exacerbated if the liver has dec ability to export VLDL (very low density lipoprotein)
Clinical signs of Fat Cow syndrome?
a. High BCS
b. Anorexia
c. Recumbancy
d. Scant feces
e. Unresponsive ketosis
f. Nervous signs – especially beef cows
g. Increase in liver enzymes, increase in blood ketones
Tx of Fat Cow syndrome?
a. IV glucose and electrolyes
b. Transfaunation
c. Dexamethasone
d. BSE
e. Propylene glycol – promotes gluconeogenesis and inculin
f. Offer good quality hand and water
g. Steroids
Control of Fat Cow syndrome?
a. Prevent pregnant cattle from becoming fat during last trimester (especially during dry period)
b. BCS often to monitor nutrtional starus of herd
What is cryptosporidium?
Coccidia
What age does it affect adult or babies?
Calves 1-2 wks
Infective stage of crypto?
oocysts
Is crypto of bovine able to spread to other species?
oh yes
What anticoccidial drugs can you use for crypto?
Unaffectd by existing anticocccidial drugs
Clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis?
-Profuse watery green D+ w/ occasional mucus and blood
Dehydration
-Destroys mature enterocytes in small and large intestine causing a malabsorption and secretory dz
Diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis?
-Giemasa, Acid fast and Auramine to stain oocysts in fecal smear from flotation technique
Treatment of cryptosporidiosis?
No specific tx, but sulfaquinooxaline w/ Vit B & K may decrease mortality
Grass However, CSF and vitreous humor will be depressed even after death
• Tx:
a. Be quiet and gentle – can die from any stress or sudden stimulus
b. IV 6% Mg salt (Mg sulfphate) slowly– can cause resp or cardia failure
c. Ca borogluconate – hypocalcemia
d. Sodium pentobaritone (euthaniasia) solubiont IV to reduce convulsions
e. Relapses are common – SQ Mg sulfphate solution
f. Orally give 4 Mg bullets
Hypomagnesemia
Hypomagnesemia seen most commonly in what?
-Lactating cows (beef or dairy) when grazing grass in spring or autumn
CS of Hypomagnesemia?
1. Hyperastesia
2. Incorrdination
3. Tetany and convulsions
4. Reluctance to enter the parlor (subclinical)
5. Sudden death
Hypomagnesemia is most commonly seen when?
-Peak lactation b/c of increased secretion of Mg in milk
Pathophysiology of Hypomagnesemia?
-There are no Mg stores in the body, so if there is a reduction in the amount of Mg in the diet w/ an increase in milk production, grass tetany can occur
What is high in Mg?
Clover
What is low in Mg?
ryegrass
What will reduce absorption of Mg in soil?
K+ fertilizers in late winter/early spring
What interferes w/ body uptake of Mg?
Ca, K and ammonium (Nitrogen) ions
What forms in calves if they are deficient in Mg? How does this occur?
Milk Tetany: calves 2-4 months old fed whole milk diets w/o Mg supplement
Mg below this number is classified as hypoMg
0.85
Common blood chemistry picture seen with Grass tetany?
Hypocalcemia and Hyperkalemia
What are the only 2 things you can use for diagnosis of Grass Tetany and why?
CSF and vitreous humor-Mg stays same after death
•After death, blood or tissue levels are meaningless b/c Mg rises
TX of grass tetany?
a.Be quiet and gentle – can die from any stress or sudden stimulus
b.IV 6% Mg salt (Mg sulfphate) slowly– can cause resp or cardia failure
c.Ca borogluconate – hypocalcemia
d.Sodium pentobaritone (euthaniasia) solubiont IV to reduce convulsions
e.Relapses are common – SQ Mg sulfphate solution
f.Orally give 4 Mg bullets
Be extra careful with Mg sulfphate give slowly because of what?
– can cause resp or cardia failure
Bovine Leukemia Virus AKA?
Bovine lymphosarcoma (LSA) or Enzootic bovine leukosis
Bovine Leukemia Virus Most common in?
-Hereford
-3-8 years old
Description Bovine Leukemia Virus?
A.Exogenous C-type RNA oncovirus in retroviridae family
b.Present in circulating B lymphocytes
c.P24 internal protein antigen and gp51 glycoprotein antigen is important for dx
Bovine Leukemia Virus affects what structures?
LNs, right side of heart, abomasum, uterus, kidney, eye, spinal cord
Bovine Leukemia Virus can be transmitted by?
1. Iatrogenic transmissionneedles; multidose syringes can spread, same rectal gloves, dehorning and ear tattooing
2. Contact transmission-
via saliva, vaginal disharges, tracheal fluids
Clinical signs of Bovine Leukemia virus?
a. 60% are asymptomatic
b. May show persistent lymphocytosis
c. Enlarged LNs
d. Depression, indigestion, chronic bloat, LDA, lamness or paralysis
Bovine Leukemia virus found where in blood?
Circulating lymphocytes
Dx Bovine Leukemia virus?
a. Persistent lymphocytosis
b.AGID Ab to viral antigens p15, p24, and gp51
c.ELISA to detect BLV Abs
Control Bovine Leukemia virus?
a.isolate and separate BLV positive cows
b.Test all incoming cows
c.Separate and raise calves on BLV-free milk
How old do calves have to be tested and if serologically negative for Bovine Leukemia virus then can join negative herd?
at 7 months
What id Sporadic bovine leukosis?
-LSA (Bovine lymphosarcoma) in young animals in absence of BLV
Three forms of sporadic bovine leukosis?
a. Juvenile
b. Thymic
c. Cutaneous
Age and characteristics of sporadic bovine leukosis?
- < 6 months old LNs, liver , spleen and bone marrow; death
Age and characteristics of Thymic bovine leukosis?
– 6-30 months old; massive tumor in thymus and nods of neck and thorax; death
Age and characteristics of Cutaneous bovine leukosis?
– 18 months-3 years; nodular lymphocytic neoplasia in seen in the skin; if animal survives, will recover in several weeks but will have remission and die
White muscle disease aka?
Subacute enzootic muscular dystrophy
What is the cause of White muscle disease?
-Selenium and Vit E deficiency causes a myopathy
White muscle disease results in and from?
-Myodegeneration in calves and lambs of dams that received selenium-deficient feed during or before gestation
What is low in selenium naturally?
Legumes are low in selenium
Clinical signs of White muscle disease
a. sternal recumbency but will attempt to stand
b. The hocks will rotate
c. Muscle tremor
d. Dyspnea
e. ‘Flying scapula’ – scapula protrudes above the vertebral column and is widely separated from the thorax; bilateral rupture of the serratus ventralis muscles
f. Paralytic myoglobinura – stiffness, recumbancy, myoglobinuria, hyperpnea, and dyspnea
Natural role of selenium in the body?
-Selenium is component of GSH-PX enzyme needed to protect RBC membranes and a component of thyroid gland hormones to convert T4  T3
-Selenium contouracts toxicty of heavy metals
Natural role of Vit Ein the body?
-Vit E is an antioxidant that prevent oxidant damageby decreasing hydroperoxid formation
Treatment of White muscle disease?
Tx is a mixture of selenium and alpha-tocopherol (Vit E)
Etiology of Wooden tongue?
Actinobacillus lignieresii
Infection enters through what in Wooden tongue?
-Abrasion of the tongue (ulcer, teeth, spiny awns, prickly forage) ;
Actinobacillus is a normal inhabitant of?
-The oral cavity and rumen
Clinical signs Wooden tongue?
a.salivation and gentle chewing
b.Tongue is swollen and hard particularly at the base
c.Manipulation of the tongue causes resentment
d.Lymphadenitis
e.Loud, snoring respiration
•Can also occur in sheep but involves the lower jaw, face and nose (not the tongue)
Tx Wooden tongue?
Iodides (Potassium iodide, Sodium iodide) until iodism develops
What is the disease : A cow with a flying scapula?
White muscle disease
Signs of iodism?
• Lacrimation
• Anorexia
• Coughing
• Appearance of dandruff
What is iodism?
Poisoning by iodine
What is the etiology of Lumpy jaw?
Actinomyces bovis
Lumpy jaw caused by?
-wounds to the buccal mucosa through wounds or dental alveoli
Clinical signs Lumpy jaw?
-Iniatially painless, hard, immovable bony swelling on mandible or maxilla at the level of the central molars
- Eventually discharge small amounds of pus through one or more openings in skin
Clin path Lumpy jaw?
show ‘club’ colonies of Gram-positive filaments
Lumpy jaw can spread to ?
esophageal groove and even reticulum
**Streptococcal diseases**
**Streptococcal diseases**
What causes Contagious udder?
Streptococcus agalacia
Streptococcus agalacia properties?
CAMP positive, esculin negative
Is there a 100% eradication of Streptococcus agalacia?
Yes-dry cow therapy
Name the environmental Strepts:
S. uberis, dyslactia
Environmental Strepts properties?
Non-ag, CAMP test and esculin fermentation
Is there a 100% eradication of Environmental Strepts ?
-No, it is ubiquittous
-Dry cow theraoy is highly effective
What are the Neonatal Streptococcus?
Streptococcus genitalium
Streptococcus genitalium causes what?
•Causes acute painful swelling of joints, lameness, and fever
•May show signs of meniingitis, omphalophlebitis, and ophthalmitis
Source of Streptococcus genitalium?
-Source is contaminated uterine discharged from infected dams through umbilicus
Tx Streptococcus genitalium?
Tx w/ PPG
Paratuberculosis aka?
Johne’s disease
Etiology of Johne’s disease?
Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP)
Johne’s disease related to?
Crohne’s dz
What is your dx: A calf with acute swelling and pain in joints ans later meningitis?
Streptococcus genitalium
Clinical signs of Johnes Disease?
a.D+ - often contains bubbles
b.Progressive wasting dz over several weeks or months
c.Bottle jaw
d.Normal to increased appetite (parasites will have a decreased appetite)
e.3-5 years old
Johnes Disease
Transmitted via?
feca/oral, colostrum or transplacental
Dx Johnes Disease?
.Clumps of acid fast bacteria in smears of feces stained w/ Ziehl-Nielsen stain of rectal mucosa
b.Culture – 16 weeks; positive is useful (high specificity)
Tx Johnes Disease?
*Tx is not recommended; Control via:
a.Test everybody w/ ELISA
b.Those that are positive, culture to confirm positive
c.Cull fecal culture cows
d.Cull offspring of culture positive cows
e.Multiple/yearly testing – cull accordingly
Polioencephalomalacia affects what part of brain?
-Gray matter of brain
Polioencephalomalacia Caused by ?
1. Thiamin inadequacy or ingestion of thiaminase plants in cattle and sheep
2. sulfate toxicity
What is your DX.... A calf with bubbly diarrhea?
Johne's
Clinical signs of Polioencephalomalacia?
a. Sudden blindness
b. muscle tremors
c. opisthotonus
d. nystagmus
e. convulsions
f. staggers
• Plants containing thiaminase (will also cause bone marrow suppression)
What plants contain thiaminase?
a. Bracken fern
b. Horstail.
Treatment of Polioencephalomalacia?
-Thiamin hydrochloride (there is no tx for sulfate toxicity)
What is your dx... a Cow with sudden blindness?
Polioencephalomalacia
Bottle Jaw in calves with diarrhea seen with?
Johnes
What is Lumpy wool?
Dermatophilosis/cutaneous streptotrichosis
Etiology of Lumpy wool?
Dermatophilus congolensis
Description of disease of Lumpy wool?
Infection of the epidermis characterized by exudative dermatitis w/ scab formation
Lumpy wool seen mostly in?
cattle, sheep and goats most commonly (occasionally horses)
Is Lumpy wool contagious to humans?
Has been documented ocassionally
What is Strawberry fot rot?
Dermatophilosis
Cause of Lumpy wool/factors predisposing an animal to this?
-Prolonged wetting by rain, high humidity, high temp and flies and ticks can increase it
What will attract the zoospore of lumpy wool?
Carbon dioxide released from breaks in the skin.
Lumpy wool Scabs look like what?
raised and circular
Lumpy wool lesions look like?
– pyramid-shaped masses of scabs on wool
Strawberry foot rot looks like ?
– skin from coronet to carpus or hock
Treatment of Dermatophilus?
-Most recover w/in 3 weeks of initial infection or during dry weather
-PPG or streptomycin injections
Urolithiasis Seen mostly in what?
1.housed calves fed milk substitute
2. weaned animals fed high concentrates
Urolithiasis Occur most commonly at what place in urogenital system?
-sigmoid flexure of the penis
Housed animals get these uroliths?
1. Ca or Mg ammonium phosphate
2. Struvite
3. Oxalate
Pastured animals get these uroliths?
Ca carbonate, Mg carbonate and Ph carbonates
Factors predisposing to Urolithiasis?
a.High concentration of grain
b.Vit A deficiency has been suggested a factor
c.Estrogesn from plants or growth promoters
d.Pelleted ration
e.Castrated males
Clinical signs Urolithiasis?
a. Palpate preputial hairs, will feel gritty
b. Straining to urinate
c. Colic – kicking at belly, paddling movement, tail swishing
d. If there seems to be a sudden relief, probably a urethral or bladder rupture (will see abdominal distension)
Tx Urolithiasis is?
sx
**Salmonella**
**Salmonella**
What type of bacteria is Salmonella?
Enterobacteria- anaerobic gram (-) rod
How is it usually zoonotic to humans?
Food contaminated with animal material.
2 types of Salmonella that affect cattle?
S. Dublin, S. Typhimurium
Age salmonella occurs in calves?
< 5 days, or 2-6 wks old, or adult
CS of salmonella in adults?
Severe Diarrhea?
CS of Salmonella in calves?
Putty, smelly diarrhea
3 Syndromes of Salmonella?
a. Peracute systemic infection
b. Acute enteritis
c. Chronic enteritis
What salmonella serotypes are pathogenic to man?
All
What salmonella is host adapted and cause dz only in man?
-S typhi, partype A and sendai
What salmonella is Sheep specific?
S abortusovis
What salmonella is Poultry specific?
S pullorum
What salmonella Causes dz in pigs, but are opportunist pathogens for other spp?
S cholerasuis
What salmonella Causes dz in cattle but is opportunist pathogen for other spp?
S dublin
What salmonella is Ubiquitous and causes dz in many animals including cattle and humans?
S typhimurium
Dx of salmonellosis?
Fecal sample before AB's for culture.
Control of salmonellosis?
a.Uncontaminated food and water
b.Control of rodents and birds
c.Biologic control
d.Vaccination
Name some common stifle injuries in cattle?
1. Patellar luxation
2. Cranial cruciate ligament rupture
3. Collateral ligament torn
4. Patellar fx
5. Proximal tibial epiphyseal separation – young cattle
Name 3 types of patellar luxation?
Dorsal, medial, lateral
Type of luxation seen in adult cattle?
dorsal, lateral
Congenital luxation occurs in what direction?
medial
CS of cattle with dorsal patellar luxation
-hindlimb remains extended caudally longer than usual, then pulled forward and upward (looks like stringhalt)
TX of dorsal patellar luxation?
Tx is medial patellar desmotomy if signs persist form more than one week
Lateral patellar luxation secondary to what?
Quadriceps atrophy from femoral paralysis.
CS of Lateral patellar luxation ?
-Lateral and medial fixation show characteristic posture of a markedly flexed stifle and the limb collapses on weight bearing (exactly as in femoral paralysis)
-Bilaterally affected calves may be recumbant
Tx of Lateral patellar luxation ?
-Both medial and lateral fixation are tx w/ a joint capsule overlap procedure
Cranial cruciate ligament rupture occurs due to what?
Heavy weight, sudden twists and falls (mounting, being mounted by cows in estrus)
Problems associated with Cranial cruciate ligament rupture?
-Subluxation of femarotibial joint, CrCL rupture, damage to tibial menisci, secondary osteoarthritic changes
-Soft tissue swelling and creptus
Diagnosis of Cranial cruciate ligament rupture?
Can get tibial drawer sign
Blackleg is caused by what?
Clostridium Chauveoi
Clostridium Chauveoi mannifests itself where?
spleen, liver and muscles
Clinical signs of Blackleg?
a.Initial – hot and painful lameness on a limb
b.Cold and emphysematous limb
c.Respiratory distress if involves the tongue
d.Stiffness and reluctance to move when sublumbar muscles are involved
e.Depression, anorexia, inc HR and inc temp
f.Death occurs in 12-24 hours
Signs of Blackleg postmortem?
•After death, carcass becomes bloated and putrefaction occurs rapidly
•Bloodstained froth exudes form all body orfices
•Muscle is black, dry and crepitant w/ spongy and rancid odor
Dx of Blackleg ?
a. Anthrax must be ddx
b. FA stain
Tx of blackleg?
-Ab of PPG only if early
Prevention of blackleg?
-via vaccines of all animals > 6 months old
Malignant edema aka?
Clostridial myositis –
Malignant edema caused by?
-Acute wound infection caused by Clostridial organsism C. novyi, C perfringens, C septicum,
or C sordelli
-Caused by deep puncture wounds, sx operations, injections, parturition
Malignant edema affects whole herd of individuals?
-individual or small number of animals
CS of disease with Malignant edema?
-Swelling, tense and emphysematous
•Lameness, stiffness, and muscle tremors may be evident – can die w/in 48 hrs
Necropsy findings with Malignant edema?
-all body cavities contain blood stained fluid
-The side of infection is surrounded by an extensive edema of SQ tissue and IM fascia
DX of malignant edema?
FA tests or culture
Pregnancy toxemia is considered primarily a dz of what species?
sheep
Pregnancy toxemia is similar to what?
-ketosis only during 7-9 months of gestation
Pregnancy toxemia predisposing factors?
beef cattle in late pregnancy
• Starvation, energy deficient diet in fat cows induces causing massive mobilization of fat reserves
Clinical signs of Pregnancy toxemia?
Same clinical signs as ketosis
Clin path of Pregnancy Toxemia?
-hypoglycemia, hyperketonemia and ketonuria
Dx Pregnancy Toxemia?
-clinical signs, nutritional status and stage of pregnancy
Tx Pregnancy Toxemia?
-same as ketosis
Pregnancy Toxemia overall is a result of?
-Even though it is more common in fat cows, it is essentially the result of starvation; therefore, supply good quality forage throughout gestation
Leptospirosis that causes synovitis and dermatitis?
-L interrogans
- serovar icterohemorrhagica
- serovar canicola
Carrier of Leptospirosis (serotypes icterohem and canicola)?
Rodent
Spread of Leptospirosis (serotypes icterohe and canicola)via?
feed or water
CS of Leptospirosis (serotypes icterohem and canicola)?
-Fever, dullness & anorexia
-Jaundice and hemoglobinuria
-Synovitis and dermatitis
TX of Leptospirosis (serotypes icterohem and canicola)?
Dihydrostreptomycin, tetracycline, blood transfusion
Leptosprirosis (serotypes hardjo) causes what?
-abortion
Leptosprirosis (serotypes hardjo) Transmitted to humans by contact via?
-urine by milking
Leptosprirosis (serotypes hardjo) Spread cow to cow via?
-urine, fetus and uterine discharge and semen
Two main syndromes of Leptosprirosis (serotypes hardjo)?
1. Udder – sudden drop in milk in all quarters, udder secretion is thickened and clotted; Flabby bag
2.Abortion – second half pregnancy
DX/TX/Prevention of Leptosprirosis (serotypes hardjo)?
DX- urine
Tx: dihydrostreptomycine
Prev: Vaccination w/ killed, but should use Ab in all cattle before vaccination program b/c infected cows may still excrete bacteria
Coxofemoral luxation – hip joint occur mc in what?
2-5 year cattle w/ parturition and early postpartum
Coxofemoral luxation occur due to?
Obturator or other nerve injury during dystocia
Coxofemoral luxation displacement most common in what direction?
Craniodorsal
Coxofemoral luxation only consistent sign is?
Sudden onset of lameness
Other cs of Coxofemoral luxation?
-Leg may be rotated outward, hock medial and stifle more lateral
-Leg may appear shortened and asymmetrical femoral trochanters
Dx of coxofemoral luxation?
Rectal palpation may locate crepitance
Tx coxofemoral luxation?
a.Manipulative reduction – position cow so that the body is fixed while the affected upper leg can be extended in various direction (deep sedation is advisable)
Retropharyngeal abscess treatment?
Same as abscesses of the jaw, wait until there is a softening to lance open
Causes of retropharyngeal abscess?
May be induced by balling gun, actinobacillosis or foreign object
MC causes of Choke?
Apples and potatoes most common
Predisposing factors to choke?
Fed in groups where cows will hoard food
Signs of choke include?
a. Profuse salivation followed by bloat (prevents swallowing and eructation)
b. Head extended
c. Frequent attempts to swallow
Diagnosis of choKe?
-pass a stomach tube to see if there is an obstruction (or will dislodge it!)
Differentials for choke?
-rabies (excess salivation is either choke or rabies!)
Tx for choke?
a.cannula for rumen tympany
b.spasmolytics (hyoscine butylbormide and dipyrone)
c. Prevent by cutting food into small pieces
Mycoplasmosis aka?
mastitis
Most common cause for mastitis?
Mycoplasma bovis
Type of bacteria Mycoplasmosis?
Not a bacteria, lack a cell wall
AB treatment for Mycoplasmosis?
•Refractory to Ab tx – cull postitive cows
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia etiology?
Mycoplasmosis – respiratory-
Mycoplasma mycoidies
Occurence of Mycoplasmosis and cs?
-Eradicated
-Sudden pyrexia and respiratory distress and pain
Contagious bovine pyelonephritis etiology?
Corynebacterium renale
Effects of Corynebacterium renale?
Urinary tract of cattle causing inflammation of kidneys, ureters and bladder
Corynebacterium renale
contracted how?
by ascending infection, females are far more susceptible than males
Age Contagious bovine pyelonephritis mc in?
> 3 years old
CS of Contagious bovine pyelonephritis?
-Hematuria, colic, painful urination w/ progression to anemia and uremia
TX Contagious bovine pyelonephritis?
-Tx w/ PPG
-Acidification of urine w/ Na phosphate
In a bacterial infection you you want to acidify urine or alkalanize it?
Acidify
Hemoglobinuria causes intravascular hemolysis or extravascular?
intravascular hemolysis
Name some DDx for Hburia?
1. Red maple – wilted leaves (BUT ONLY IN HORSES)
2. Scented thorn
3. Murcury
4. Cereal rye
5. Babesiosis (bigemina and bovis) – severe jaundice
6. Tropical theileriosis – Hyalomma ticks, LN enlargment
7. Postparturient Hburia – no jaundice, 2-4 weeks postcalving in cows 3-6th lactation
8. Bacillary Hburia
9.Leptosporosis (interrogans pomona) – mostly in young calves, jaundice, petechia, pallow, adults have orange milk
10. Chronic copper poisoning – copper supplement in swine diet by mistake
Orange milk in adult cows?
Leptosporosis
Is red maple leaves toxic effect cause hemoglobinuria in all species?
No-only horses
Cows would get accidental copper poisoning if ?
get into copper supplement in swine diet by mistake
Bacillary hemoglobinuria etiology?
Clostridium hemolyticum
Area affected by Clostridium hemolyticum?
-Liver
Time of year Clostridium hemolyticum prevalent?
-Summer and autumn in endemic areas (irrigated or poortly drained pastrue)
Clostridium hemolyticum
causes what?
-Causes toxemia, Hburia, and jaundice, brisket edema, sudden death, urine is dark red
Tx of Clostridium hemolyticum?
1. Immediate PPLG or tetracyclines
2. Antitoxic serum if available
3. Vaccination available
Type of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter jejuni in calves?•
NOT A CAUSE OF INTESTINAL DZ IN CALVES
Name campy's causing abortion in cattle?
Abortion
•Campylobacter fetus spp venerealis – venereal infection
•Campylobacter fetus spp fetus – ingestion
Herd problem abortions in cattle include?
IBR, BVD, brucellosis, leptospirosis, campylobacteriosis, trichomoniasis, anaplasmosis, ureaplasmas, mycoplasmas.
Sporadic abortions in cattle include?
Mycotic(Aspergillus, Mucor spp)., Listeria, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Staphylococcus, bluetonque. Nitrates, lupine, locoweed, mycotoxins
***Abortion***
***Abortion***
Asymptomatic in bull
Tricho fetus
Causes postcoital (not post partum) pyometra?
Trich fetus
Not zoonotic in cattle (zoonotic in sheep)?
Campy vibriosis (Vibriosis)
Affects developing embryo at the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy (DOES NOT affect conception)?
Vibriosis
Herd hx of gradual ‘infertility’?
Trich fetus
Endometritis and Salpinitis
Vibriosis
CARRIERS from one breeding season to the next
Vibriosis
DOES NOT prevent conception, but EED (early embryonic death)
Trich fetus
Dx of Vibriosis?
CLARK’s medium
Dx of Trich fetus?
Diamond’s media so will multiply, & culture for 24-48 hrs. THREE TIMES
into prepuce fold
Conceive, but then return to estrus 40-45 days later/Get a ‘scattered calf crop’.
Trich fetus
What do you use flagyl to treat in bovine?
Flagyl is illegal in food animals
Protozoan w/ 3 anterior and 1 posterior falgella and an undulating membrane.
Trichomonas
Tx of vibriosis?
Tx bull w/ Dihydrostriptomycin
Venereal dz of cattle
Transmitted by coitus
Trich fetus
Transmitted by raw foods such as eggs, meat, milk, water etc?
Campylobacteriosis
Anaplasmosis etiology?
Anaplasma marginale
Anaplasmosis Transmitted by ?
1. Ticks (Boophilus microplus, Dermacentor), tabanids
2. Iatrogenically
3. Transplacentally
CS anaplasmosis?
Anemia, jaundice, severe debility, death
Anaplasmosis found in blood stream in what cell?
RBC
Major pathogen of college students in US
Campylobacteriosis
Treatment of Anaplasmosis?
1. Tetracycline or imidocarb, blood transfusion
2. Weekly dipping in acaricides is vacciantion inendemic arease
May be confused w/ appenticitis?
Campylobacteriosis
AMOUNT OF ALTERNATING CURRENT THAT CAN AFFECT BEHAVIOR in cattle?
0.5 TO 1.0 VOLT
Stray voltage amount that can kill a cow?
110-220 volts
Survives refrigeration and freezing well and has low infective dose
Campylobacteriosis
Cow will respond to this amount of voltage?
2 volts
Name the campylobactors transmitted through food?
1. C jejuni – cattle, swine, fowl
2. C fetus, hyointestinalis – swine
3. C coli – fowl
Anaplasmosis subclinical in what species?
Sheep/goat
Can cause abortions in all species of animals by eating affected foods?
Campylobacteriosis
Listeria monocytogenenes is dangerous to humans and man why?
-Ubiquitous in farm enviroment
-Resistant because psychrophillic and thermoduric
Listeria monocytogenenes assocaiated w/ what causing it?
-feeding silage w/ high listerial growth (found at bottom abd top of silo)and management induced stress
Lesion with listeria seen where?
brainstem and CN
Abortion with Listeria occur during?
last trimester
Other disease manifestations with Listeria?
-septicemia in pregant and neonatal sheep and goats, enteritis in weanlings, spinal myelitis, ophthalmitis and occasionally masitis
CSF analysis of listeria?
CSF – pleocytosis of mononuclear cells and lymphocytes & inc protein
Pathopneuminic lesion with listeria?
Microabscesses in brainstem, spinal cord, intestin or viscera
Tx of listeria?
Tx is chlortetracycline or PPG EARLYin clinical dz
•Zoonotic implications
Fescue toxicosis
Neotyphoidium coenophialum – ergovaline from ergot alkaloids
Aflatoxin
Aspergillus flavus
Zearalenone
Fusarium roseum
Trichothecenes
moldy corn toxiciosis; Fusarium sprorotrichoides and roseum
Ochratoxin
Aspergillus ochraceus and Pnicillin vindicatum; Ochratoxin A
Slaramine
Rhizoctonia legumincoola
Fumoninsins
– moldy corn toxicosis; Fumonsins
Name common trematodes affecting bovine?
•Schistosomes
•Fasciola hepatica Flukes
•Paramphistomum and Coylophron
Blood trematode?
•Schistosomes
What auses hyperplastic cholangitis and what is that?
Fasciola hepatica Flukes– where the biliary mucosa becomes permeable to albumin
Rumen flukes?
•Paramphistomum and Coylophron -non pathogenic
Predisposes cattle to Clostridium hemolyticus (red water dz)
Fasciola hepatica
Most susceptible species to tetanus?
Horse
Most pathogenic fluke in cattle
Fasciola hepatica – major cause of liver condemnation
Most resistant species to tetanus?
birds
Causes aboriton via placentits and is found in moldy hay or straw?
Aspergilosis, Candiasis, Zygomycosis (Mucor, Rhizo)
What mycosis causes pneumonia, hepatic insufficiency, placentitis?
Histomonas-MIssissippi river
Chronic dz of nasal mucosa in cattle and horses.
Rhinosproidiosis
•Rhinosprodidium seeberi
Generalized dz or granulomatous, abortion, can be a cause of bovine mastitis?
cryptococcosis
Mycosis common in dogs but rare in other species?
Blasto
What happens with Intussusception?
• Small intestine telescopes into the small intestine or the ileo-cecal valve into the cecum
Tx in Bovine with Intussusception?
-Sx remove and anastomosis performed – DO NoT UNRAVEL
What is your dx? Basophillic stippling of RBC?
Lead poisoning
Lead toxicosis most common source is?
electric storage batteries
Tx of lead toxicisis in bovine?
Tx Mg sulphate, Ca EDTA, thiamine
What is the condition of lead poisoning called?
plumbism
Species that tend to be resistant to lead?
Swine and poultry
Use Calcium EDTA as a chelating agent in all species except?
Birds-use Dimercaptosuccinic acid 25-35 mg/kg BID for 5 days.
Pathway of lead through body?
Residue problem b/c stored in bone, kidney and slowly excreted in the bile
Common Sources of lead?
1. Lead arsenate in pesticide
2. Older buildings – putty, shingles, paints, plaster
3. Lead shots
4. Fishing wts
5. Solder
6. Bell clangers
7. Lead acid batteries – cattle
A farmer tells you he added an ingredient to improve digestibility and nitrogen content in his hay cows are now presenting with Hyperesthesia, rapid blinking, ear flicking, frequent urination and defecation, dyspnea, circling and convulsions
•Blood ammonia levels are normal, what is your dx?
Anhydrous ammonia was added to hay-Ammoniated feed toxicosis
Treatment in the above situation?
Tx – sedation and dilute toxic forage w/ normal feed is NOT recommended b/c can get an accumulatory effect
•Maximum rate of ammoniation to avoid toxicity is 3% for poor quality forage and 1% for high moisture forage
Ergot toxicosis Includes?
a.Neothypohdium (Acremonium) - ergovaline (fescue toxicosis), lolitrem (ryegrass staggers via tremorgens)
b.Clavicepts paspali – paspalum staggers; dallis grass, bahiagrass, CNS
c.Claviceps purpurea – ergotism; ergotomine; cereal rye grasses, ingestion of large quantities
What is your diagnosis?a.Gangrene of extremities
b.Hyperthermia syndrome
c.Reproductive syndrome
-lack of udder development and agalacia
•Claviceps purpura
Rabies etiology?
Rhabdovirus
% mortality wih rabies?
100%
Who does rabies affect?
Affects all warm blooded animals
Transmission of rabies introduced into?
striated muscle
Rabies path of infection?
Replicates until reaches nerve ending
Why does rabies reach nerve endings?
tropism for Ach
Amt/ day that rabies migrates?
50-100mL/day in nervous system toward brain
T or F- The longer the bite is from the brain, the longer it takes to be fatal!
True
Rabies replicates in?Moves to?
limbic system of lower brain-moves to cortex
Phase of rabies is called what after moves to cortex?
‘Dumb rabies’
Destination of rabies virus?
The moves to salivary gland & is excreted via a bite in extremely high concentrations
DDX of Rabies
distemper in racoons; pseudorabies in swine
3 stages of rabies?
Prodromal
Furius
Dumb
Clinical signs of Prodomal stage?
-humans, vague changes in temperament 1-3 days before clinical signs
Clinical signs of Furious stage?
-Dogs, cats, horses, CNS ; loses emotional control – bizarre behavior; will move after anything that moves, will break teeth
Clinical signs of dumb stage?
– cattle, pharyngeal paralysis, ‘choke’
Wild animals – aberrant behavior, animals come out in middle of day
Drool b/c swallowing is painful
Dx of rabies?
- IFA test of head to state lab
Protocol for rabies suspect?
Confine dog/pet for 10 days after bite
Rabies animal will shed virus for how long?
6 days before showing signs (4 extra days are precautions)=10 days confinement
If vaccinated pet bitten by rabid animal what do you do?
revaccinate immediately, release to O, and observe for 45 days
If unvaccinated pet bitten by rabid animal what do you do?
isolate for 6 months and vaccinate 1 month before release
Susceptibility of rabies in different animals from greatest to least?
Coyotes, Foxes, Skunks > racoons > Dogs > Pigs > Human > Opossums
Most common sign in cattle with rabies?
bellowing
Bangs disease aka?
Brucellosis- Contagious abortion
Describe Brucellosis?
Zoonotic, AI dz
Does Brucellosis occur during coitus?
No- because natural service cannot penetrate cervix
How long are animals infertile following infection with Brucella?
4-12 months
Brucella Bacteria may be found in what in pregnant cows?
Uterus
Dx of Brucella in cow via?
stomach and lungs of aborted fetus
Test cow for Brucella via ?
serum agglutination test from milk, whey and plasma or ELISA Abs in milk and serum and vaginal mucus
Treatment for Brucella?
none
Prevention of Brucella?
- vaccinate w/ B abortus strain 19
Nocardiosis is a disease causing what?
Chronic infection from soil borne organisms
Clinical manifestation of Nocardia?
generalized, purulent granulomatous nodular lesions
MC in what species (Nocardia)
Cattle
Most common sign of nocardia in cattle?
Mastitis
Nocardia has the ability to cause other problems in the body via?
Metastasis to lungs and supramammary LNs
Nocardia is known to cause what other disease?
bovine farcy – puruelent lymphadentitis and lymphangitis
DX of nocardia
Easily cultured on blood ro brain-heart agar for more than 3 days
Tx of nocardia
-successfully w/ udder infusion; Erythromycin and miconazole are most effective
**** Chlamydiosis****
**** Chlamydiosis****
•Causes seminal vesiculiis syndrome – semen contain chlamydia
•Causes an endometritis and infertility and abortion
•Severe placentitis
•Chlamydia psittaci
•Fever w/ good appetite
•ADR, incoordination and staggering
•Vascular damage in many organs – peritonitis, pleuritis, pericarditis
Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis
•Chlamydia psittaci
Will chalmydia cause intestinal disease in cattle?
yes
Chlamydia psittaci will cause eye infections in these species?
cats, lambs, goats and guinea pigs
Enzootic pneumonia in calves
Chlamydia psittaci
Polyarthritis-serositis Infectious dz of sheep, calves, goats and pigs
Chlamydia psittaci- from GI
Arthritis in calves with no naval involvement?
Chalmydia psittaci
Ionophore/Monensin/Lasalocid toxicity due to uses for coccidiostat and growth promotion in cattle will cause what cs?
Cause myopathy,Myocardial necrosis and pulmonary congestion
Monensin is also used to tx?
ketosis, lactic acidosis and bloat
Monensin is potentiated by?
Abs and sulfonamides
Highest toxicity to monensin seen in what animal?
horse
D+ and black erosions of abomasal and duodenal mucosa? is DX?
Na chlorate- a Herbicide
•Inhibites aconitase – Myocardial depression w/ ventricular fibrillation and CNS causing convulsions-what is your dx?
Na fluoroacetate- Compound 1080 as a rodenticide
V+/D+, dehydration, opisthotonus, nystagmus, blindness, convulsions, death
,Polioencephalomalacia what is your dx?
Na chloride poisoning- water deprivation
What is your dx? eosinophilic perivasculitis, meningitis, laminar cortical necrosis w/ gitter cells and edema?
Salt poisining- NACL
Mad Itch aka?• Rare, but Suid Herpesvirus 1 can be spread from the pig to cattle via nasal discharge in contact w/ abraded skin or nasal mucosa
• • Most cause death
• MAD ITCH
Pseudorabies
Etiology of Pseudorabies?
Herpesvirus 1
How do cattle get pseudorabies?
spread from the pig to cattle via nasal discharge in contact w/ abraded skin or nasal mucosa
MC clinical sign of Pseudorabies?
-Intense, local pruritis w/ violent licking, chewing and rubbing of the part
-May cause intesne excitiment including bellowing and convulsionsm manic behavior, circling and spasm and opsthotonus
Vesicular stomatits affects who?
Disease of cattle, horses and pigs
Are all vesicular diseases reportable?
yes
Vesicular lesions in vesicular stomatitis seen where?
on oral mucosa, teats and prepuce
DX of vesicular stomatitis ?
Virus isolation or PCR, serology w/ rising titers
Most vesicular stomatitis outbreaks occur when?
Late summer and early autumn
Human manifestation of vesicular stomatitis ?
flu-like symptoms
Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis ?
Windborne, black fly, Culicoides fly, eye gnats may transmit
Is vesicles a definitive diagnosis in vesicular stomatitis ?
No-Vesicles only occur in 30% of cases – hard to detect
Definitive diagnosis in vesicular stomatitis ?
FA Ab used to dx
Tuberculosis etiology?
Mycobacterium bovis
Main source of infection of Mycobacterium bovis
to pigs and all other spp (all ages and all spp!)
Infected cattle
Reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis which prevents eradication in some countries?
Wildlife
Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis?
Transmitted by inhalation or ingestion – drinking water and feed troughs, infected milk, intrauterine infection, feeding TB cattle carcasses, stockmen urinating in cattle environment
More resistant breed of cattle to Mycobacterium bovis?
Zebu (Bos indicus)
Important zoonosis of Mycobacterium bovis?
infected milk
Mycobacterium bovis Spread by two stages?
a. Primary complex – lesion at point of entry and in local LN; calcification of lesion 2 weeks later; and spreads to lung or liver
b. Post primary dissemination – discrete nocular lesions in various organs or chronic organ tuberculosis
Pathognomonic for Mycobacterium bovis
monocytes and plasma cells surrounded by granulation tissue “tubercle’
Clinical signs Mycobacterium bovis?
a. Progressive emaciation
b. Capricious appetite and fluctuating temperature
c. Chronic soft cough
d. Dyspnea – bronchopneumonia in sheep & goats
e. Crackles over caudal lobes
f. May have infertility or abortion – uncommon
g. Mastitis – important b/c cause of public health; palpate supramammary LNs
h. Painful osteomyelitis in cervical vertebrae in horses
M/C Dx of Mycobacterium bovis?
Tuberculin test
a. Single intradermal (SID) test – intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of tuberculin into a caudal tail skin fold made of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD)
b. Reaction is read 48-72 hours later for sensitivity and 96 hours for specificity
c. NVLs – no visible lesion reactors and lack of specificity (M bovis, M avium, tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, Nocardia
d. May not be sensitive to to old cows or cows which ahbe rectnly calved
e. Cannot retest for 60 days
Other Dx of Mycobacterium bovis?
a. Short thermal test – intradermal TB (4 mL) injected SQ in the neck which have NO temperature. If temp at 4,6 and 8 hours later goes above 104, the animals is a positive reactor
b. Stormont test – same as above, w/ further injection at same site 7 days later, an increase in skin thickness of 5 mm or more 24 hours after 2nd injection is a positive; cannot retest for 6 months
c. Comparative test – Avian and bovine TB are injected simultaneously into two separate sites on same side of neck and read 72 hours later. Good to differentiate between vaccination against Johne’s and TB
d. Serological tests – Interferone gamma assay
• Other spp:
a. Pigs – SID in base of the ear
b. Horses – SID – false positives occur; smaller doses required, may provoke an anaphylacitic rxn
c. Sheep and goats – Stormont test
Treatment for Mycobacterium bovis?
test and eradicate
Atypical mycobacterium seen in bovine?
Mycobacterium avium-intracelluar
Mycobacterium avium-intracelluar source?
Domestic or wild birds
Mycobacterium avium-intracelluar cs?
Draining LNs of GI tacts; most are subclinical but can cause carcass condemnation
Human origin TB?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
CS of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cattle?
Usually causes LNs of GI and respiratory system to enlarge
Confused w/ bovine farcy – Mycobacterium farcinogens
Skin tuberculosis
What is Skin tuberculosis
?
Chronic tuberculoid granuloma lesions of the skin on lower limbs
• Acid fast organsism
• Not pathogenic
Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Etiology?
Caused by two agents:
1. Alcelaphine herpes virus-1 (AHV-1) from wildabeast
2.Ovine herpes virus-2 from sheep
AHV occurs where in world?
occurs in Africa in cattle comingled w/ wildabeast
OHV occurs where in world?
a. occurs in USA in low incidence in cattle that comingle with sheep
b.Unknown how it is spread
Outcome of AHV and OHV?
1. fatal
2. Some recovered cattle show a persistent viremia
Considered one of the most important dzs of what?
farmed deer
Gossypol toxicosis ocurs from ingestion of what?
cotton seed seeds and hulls
Gossypol toxicosis Causes what?
damage to myocardium and liver
Most susceptible species to Gossypol toxicity?
Preruminant lambs
Seen in farmed deer?
MCF
Outbreaks of gossypol seen mostly in?
Pigs
CS of Gossypol toxicity?
-Thin, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, jugular vein distension, reduced fertility in bulls, generalized edema
In a herd of cattle youare finding opacity of the cornea is always present, and persistant bilateral ocular leukomata,necrotizing vasculitis,what is your diagnosis?
MCF
Whatcan you add to an animals diet to prevent gossypol poisoning?
a.iron to pig diet
b.cations
c.Ca carbonate – prevents repro effects in cattle
d.Cookiing in Ca hydroxide or Ferrous sulfate
Botulism is what type of toxin?
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin
Does clostridium botulinum cause spores?
yes
Spore forming anaerobe of botulism can suvive in environment for ?
30 years
Type of Clostridium botulinum causing diseae in animals?
Animal dz from subtypes B, C & D
Where are the different types of botulism found?
Type B – not found in south, horse
•Type C – acid soils in Gulf coast, cattle and sheep
•Type D – alkaline soils in the west, cattle and sheep
Other source of botulism
1. Forage botulism
2. Carrion Associated botulism
3. Wound botulism
Source of forage botulism?
a.ingestion of preformed toxin in spoiled stored forages or decaying vegetable material
b.Usually cereal or big bale silage
Type of botulism in forage?
Type B
Most susceptible to forage botulism?
horse
Source of Carrion associated botulism?
a. Animals on pasture
b. Includes dead animals and birds
Type of botulism in Carrion associated botulism?
Most type C & D
Type of botulism that persists in carcass/how long can it remain infective?
Carrion assoc- 1 yr
Phosphorus deficient diet (cattle) or Protein deficient diet (sheep) can predispose to thi botulism?
Carrion associated botulism-type C & D
Drinking from lakes w/ avian botulism has been a source of this type of botulism?
Carrion associated-type C & D
Found in poultry manure?
Carrion associated-type C & D
Wound botulism foundin what species?
a.rare but recoded in horses following castration or injection abscess
Causes shaker foal syndrome in horses?
Type B botulism
MC species affected with botulism?
birds
Type of paralysis with botulism?
Flaccid-compete with ACh
Pathogneumonic for Botulism infection?
•Animal dies of respiratory paralysis
•Progressive symmetric muscular paralysis
Botulism aka____ in sheep
limber neck
Botulism aka____ in foals
muscle tremor
DX of botulism?
a. detection of toxin using mouse bioassay
b. spores in the feed or feces of affected animals
c. Ab via ELISA
Tx of botulism
b. Polyvalent antiserum – early
c. Mineral oid – consitpation
d. Bladder catheterization
e. Avoid drugs that deplete neuromuscular junction (Ach)
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) first occurence?
Occurred in United Kingdom when meat and bone rendering processing changed from organic solvent to steam