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36 Cards in this Set

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juxtaposition
placement of two opposite things next to each other to emphasize contrast
dramatic monologue
a single character delievers a speech
-the speaker indirectly reveals his/her situation and character
- a silent listener, addressed by the speaker and implied in what the speaker says

ex: Ulysses/ My last Duchess when the duke was talking to the person who was going to maybe introduce him to his next wife
pg.828
Blank Verse
unrhymed iambic pentamter
Ex: Ulysses by alfred, lord tennyson
none of the verses rhyme in Ulysses
Novel
-long work of fiction featuring:
-complex plot, including subplots and multiple settings
-major and minor characters
-significant overall theme

ex: Hard times CHarles DIckens
Social Critisism
calls attention to society's ills
-particluar incidents critisize social trends and forces

ex: Hard times CHarles DIckens

he critisizes utilitarianism by satirizing it. he portrays utilitarian teachings as unimaginative and accuses it of producing teachers and students who are cold and lifeless.
poetry theme
isolation of individuals of one another and society

ex: dover beach by matthew arnold

the speaker is on the beach all alone talking about how isolated he is and it encourages people to reach out to one another
mood
the feeling that the poem evokes
ex: dover beach matthew arnold
sadness
theme
the central idea
ex: dover beach matthew arnold

Dover Beach's theme is a negative view of the isolation of individuals of one another and society.
aside
a little comment off the main track
has truth / real feelings of speakers

ex: ow poor beggars in red!
Widow at windsors- Rudyard Kipling
emotive vs. informative
emotive language- uses words, phrases, and examples for emotive effect

informative language- conveys facts

emotive ex: Conditions of IRELAND edited by Henry Mayhew
"ignorant and vicious legislation" he uses this to emote a feeling of disgust for the legislation.

Informative language
the author uses statistics reffering to the amount of land that could be used for cultivation.
Imagery
descriptive language that recreates sensory experience. use it to create metaphors and other figures of speech. appeals to any or all of the five senses. often creates patterns supporting a poem's theme.

ex: dover beach matthew arnold

Arnold talks about the see with many beautiful details but the image is so lonely, and it supports the theme of isolation.
Satire
uses humor to critisize something

ex: Hard Times

Dickens portrays bitzer and McChokeumChild and mr.gradgrind as bland lifeless tools of utilitarianism
Irony
involves surprising intresting or a musing contradicions

Ex: Lady of Shallot Alfred, Lord Tennyson

it's ironic how when she wanted to live a real life in the real world, thats when she lost her life
Refrain
repeated verse

ex: Recessional Rudyard Kipling

he repeats "Less we forget, Less we forget."
Heroic couplet
couplet - 2 rhyming lines

iambic pentameter- rhythm in which the iambic pattern weak strong is repeated 5 times

ex: My Last Dutchess

every two lines rhyme and they have iambic pentameter
allusion
reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work

ex: Widow at Windsor
rudyard Kipling
journalistic essay
a short prose pieces that provide perspective on current events or trends. Serious or trivial stories out of news

can go two ways:
voice of an all knowing judge
ex: condition of Ireland Henry Mayhew

or

may offer individual opinions about common concerns
Speaker
not necessarily the poet, person who "says" the poems words
-fictional or real ex: My Last Dutchess
-generalized or specific ex: Dover Beach
Euphemism
(pleasant speech) mild indirect word or phrase used in a place of one and may have an unpleasant connotation for some people

ex: in "ah are you digging on my grave" Thomas hardy, there is a euphimisum for death. "passed the Gate / That shuts on all flesh soon or late..."
Realism
focused on ordinary people facing day to day problems of life; reflected trend toward democracy and growing middle class audience for literature

ex: the widow at windsor rudyard kipling

it's a poem about the problems faced by beggars
Prince Albert
He was the husband of queen victoria.

He advised her to start the Great of Exhibition of 1851 which was a display of British Power and this caused Rudyard Kipling to warn about the cost of World Dominion.
Jeremy Bentham
founder of utilitarianism

because of him charlotte bronte and charles dickens wrote jane eyre and hard times to use satire about the utilitarianism.
Charles Darwin
The Origin of Species was looked at by Victorian thinkers as a direct challenge to traditional beliefs and organized religion. Science and technology were isolating people and creates a detachment between humans and nature -- Dover Beach
Thomas Robert Malthus
He didnt care for common people and he talked about how to keep the population down. He influences literature by causing literature to be written in response to his cruelty towards people. Such as the conditions of ireland
Cardinal John Henry Newman
The powerful Anglican Minister who converted into Catholicism at a time when Catholics were opressed. Writers wrote about democracy for everyone like Catholics,lower class, and women.
Pre-Ralphaelite Brotherhood
Poets rejected industrial life and morality in art, so they wrote about medival art, truth to nature, purity, and the bible.
Queen Victoria
She influenced almost everthing in the Victorian Age. She prompted writers to write about her and her policies and put some writers in powerful positions, like alfred, lord tennyson.
Corn Laws
They put tarrifs on grain and discouraged food imports and made food expensive for the poor class. It contributed to the potatoe famine of ireland and caused people to write about the famine and the welfare of common people.
Reform Bills
stopped the corn laws. and the second one gave more people the right to vote such as the working class, and the third reform act gave even more people the right to vote. this was all caused by people writing to give influence to the common people.
Chartist Movement
It influenced the reform bills, and this emphsized the common people. Literature wrote about the common people more often and had to do with realism.
Great Exhibition of 1851
Created by Prince Albert and it was a display of British power of the time. It prompted Kipling to warn about the cost of world dominion, as in the Recessional.
Imperalism
building an empire

It prompted Rudyard Kipling to write and warn about world dominion, as in the Recissional.
Origin of Species
Written by Darwin, and prompted modern views on life and rejected the church. This caused people to shift their views about life and creation.
poor law system
The poor law was repealed in the early 18o0's and this caused a decline in social welfare. malthus wrote against the poor people and this caused writing to sympathize with the common classes.
Potato Famine
Destroyed half of the potato crop in Ireland. It caused writers to write about the CONDITIONS OF IRELAND and BRITISH POLICIES and LOOKED TO ESTABLISH NEW SOLUTIONS
Utilitarianism
the belief that statisitcs and logic could be applied to all parts of life caused bronte and dickens to create satires about it.