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395 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the art of persuasive speaking and the science of composition
rhetoric
an individual way of putting thoughts into words, a distinctive way of handling language
style
location and time period, can lend realism, organize story, create mood
setting
point of view
speaker
description of physical characteristics and personality, relationships and attitudes
characters
dynamic, altered by experiences
round
static, one dimensional
flat
stereotypes or caricatures
stock
brie summary of action or issue explained
plot or situation
struggle between two opposing forces or characters
conflict
way in which conflict is resolved
resolution
significant or recurring idea
theme
using words to create images that appeal to the senses
imagery
rhetorical devices used by author, not meant to be literally interpreted
figurative language
laying out of information, new material
exposition
onset of conflict-may involve protagonist and antagonist
complication
turning point
crisis
fulfillment of action in crisis
climax
release, untying
resolution/denouement
sequence interrupted by recollection of image or scene from past
flashback
at first, then linking together later
separate stories
author predicts or suggests an outcome of the plot
foreshadowing
specific, visual, familiar, real
concrete
general, detached, broader, less tangible
astract
elevated and elaborate, follows rules of syntax...
formal or high diction
everyday but standard, ordinary
neutral or middle diction
the language of everyday use, relaxed and conversational
informal or low diction
actual meaning of a word
denotation
what a word suggests
connotation
susceptible to uncertainty of meaning
ambiguity
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
an object or process that represents a concept or abstract idea important to the work's theme
symbol
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
blunder resulting from substitution of a word similar in sound but different in meaning
malapropism
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
trite or overworked phrase
cliche
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
use of a pleasant or polite word to mask harsh or rude truths
euphemism
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
a part represents the whole
synecdoche
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
when one word or phrase is sub. for another, close in meaning
metonymy
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
true statement that seems to contradict itself
paradox
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
contradictory terms are combined
oxymoron
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
adjective noun combination that fuctions as synonym
kenning
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
the humorous use of a word which is similar in sound to another word with a different meaning
pun
vocabulary of a spec. field
jargon
sotyr with meaning on two levels
allegory
words and phrases that evoke..related to sight
visual imagery
words and phrases...related to sound
aural imagery
words and phrases...tastes
gustatory imagery
words and phrases...smell
olfactory imagery
words and phrases...touch
tactile imagery
words and phrases...general motion
kinetic imagery
words and phrases...human/animal movement
kinesthetic imagery
imagers that describe a particular sensory experience as though it were appreciated through one or more of the other senses
synesthetsia
repetition of initial consonant sound
alliteration
rep. of identical consonant sound, vowel changed
consonance
similarity of vowel sounds
assonance
a word whose sound imitates its meaning
onomatopoeia
good sound, smooth flowing language
eupony
percussive, choppy, noisy pronunciation
cacophony
quality produced by nasals
resonance
tone of weariness or languor
exhaustion
smoothness resulting from liquid consonants
liquidity
harshness that jars the nerves
plosiveness
entire final stressed syllables
identical rhyme
look alike but don't sound alike
eye rhyme
same consonant sounds (rhyme)
apporximate or slant or near or alliterative rhyme
a system which measures the rhythm of poetry
meter
unrhymed iambic pentameter
blank verse
poetry w/ no reg. metrical pattern or rhyme scheme
free verse
division of a poem, varying in number of lines
stanza
two line stanza forming a unit of meaning
couplet
four line stanza
quatrain
six line stanza/eight line stanza
sestet/octet
the repetition of a line or art of a line
refrain
any break or pause in a line of poetry-internal or terminal
caesura
continuation of thought to next line of poetry
enjambement
14 line poem in iambic pentameter
sonnet
octave and sestet
Petrarchan sonnet (Italian)
3 quatrains and a rhyming couplet
Shakespearean sonnet (English)
a relatively short poem w/ single speaker expressing intense emotion,s ong-like
lyric
song-like narrative poem in short stanzas
ballad
lyric poem addressed to some person or thing
ode
poem praising or mourning someone who has died
elegy
long narrative poem following brave deeds of a hero
epic
short poem or statement notable for concise wit
epigram
motivations of characters arise from the unconscious mind
Freudian Theory
pleasure principal, primal desires
id
reality
ego
morality, our conscience
superego
avoidance of primitive desires
repression
student of Freud who expanded individual unconscious to a "collective unconscious"
Jungian Theory
inherited unconscious pattern which const. structure of the mind-prototype or model
archetypes
side of personality we present to the world
persona
our secret self
shadow
kind of mediator between the person and the shadow
anima
direct or indirect reference to another text
allusion
something that does not fit in with its context historically
anachronism
record of events written by someone with special knowledge of them
memoir
coming of age story
bildungsroman
seaker reveals character in one-way dialogue
dramatic monologu
one independent clause
simple
two independent clauses
compound
one or more depend. clauses and one indep. clause
complex
one or more dep. and 2 indep. clauses
compound complex
gives the purpose of a sentence-delcarative, etc.
function
states main thought near beg. of sentence in indep. clause
loose construction
opposite of loose-withholds completion of main thought
periodic
similar or antithetical ideas in parallel form
balanced
arrangement of a series of related words, phrases or clauses w/ emphasis through similarity
parallelism
repetition of a word or phrase in successive clauses or sentences as a lit. device
anaphora
second clause is a reversal of the first
chiasmus
delib. omission of conjunctions
asyndeton
delib. use of many conjunctions
polysyndeton
dialogue in which ending and beg. of lines echo each other
stichomythia
ude of verb w/ two meanings w/ object that go w/ both
zeugma
word or phrase made of changing the order of the letters in another word or phrase
anagram
using phrases, clasues or sentences w/ similar structure but opposite meaning for effect
antithesis
short, neatly expressed general truth
aphorism
a word or phrase whichr eads the same backward and forward
palindrome
writer's attitude toward reader and subject
tone
attempts to correct a social prob. through a blend of humor and gentle prodding
satire
bitter, angry, uses contempt and indignation at corruption of humans/institutions
Juvenalian satire
gentle, soph., smiling-correct w/ broadly sympathetic laughter
Horation
arrangement of a series of related words, phrases or clauses w/ emphasis through similarity
parallelism
repetition of a word or phrase in successive clauses or sentences as a lit. device
anaphora
second clause is a reversal of the first
chiasmus
delib. omission of conjunctions
asyndeton
delib. use of many conjunctions
polysyndeton
dialogue in which ending and beg. of lines echo each other
stichomythia
ude of verb w/ two meanings w/ object that go w/ both
zeugma
word or phrase made of changing the order of the letters in another word or phrase
anagram
using phrases, clasues or sentences w/ similar structure but opposite meaning for effect
antithesis
short, neatly expressed general truth
aphorism
a word or phrase whichr eads the same backward and forward
palindrome
writer's attitude toward reader and subject
tone
attempts to correct a social prob. through a blend of humor and gentle prodding
satire
bitter, angry, uses contempt and indignation at corruption of humans/institutions
Juvenalian satire
gentle, soph., smiling-correct w/ broadly sympathetic laughter
Horation
satire expressed in narrative, charac. are ridiculed by what they themselves say or do
Informal satire
term used mostly by existentialist philosophers to describe a kind of spiritual alientation
absurd
comparison of persons, places, objects, ideas for purpose of explanation
analogy
short account of interesting or amusing incident
anecdote
to write explanatory or critical notes on or for a book or document
anotate
collection of poetry or prose that represents the work of a part. writer, etc.
anthology
giving human form or characteristics to non humans like animals or deities
anthropomorphism
remark or speech made by character on stage that other characters supposedly don't hear
aside
a morning serenade
aubade
bold experimentation in the arts by those who are ahead of their time
avant garde
complete list of a writer's work
bibliography
the way in which the voice rises and falls in pitch when someone is reading
cadence
body of laws or official body of one author's work
canon
"seize the day"
carpe diem
relieving of emotions, cleansing or release
catharsis
verse written by courtiers of Charles I in praise of wine, women, song, and the king
cavalier poetry
the embracing of the lit. , philosophy, art, etc. of ancient Greek and Roman cultures
classicism
in classic Greek drama, group that comments on action of play and consequences, values
chorus
the highest point of action
climax
comic element inserted into somver work to relieve tension
comic relief
a work in which protagonist overcomes adversity
comedy
characteristic means of expression that reflects habits of thought and erception
conceit
for a word, the other words surrounding it
context
juxtaposition of images or ideas to heighten situation
contrast
generally accepted lit. device or form
convention
trad. based on philosophy of love through Middle Ages
courtly love
differences in language
dialect
written form of conversation between 2 or more speakers
dialogue
the omission of words from a sentence that can be easily understood w/o them
ellipsis
final note added to lit. work, final scene or speech after end of play
epilogue
suddent insight or understanding
epiphany
narrative conveyed by means of letters
epistolary
short analytical, descriptive, or interpretive piece of prose on particular topic
essay
doctrine deriving from Kierkegaard that man is not part of an ordered scheme but indiv. must create their own being
existentialism
brief tale that offers a moral lesson
fable
a useful or interesting contrast to something
foil
story or legend passed down orally that becomes part of community's tradition
folk tale
writing to explain, clarify or evaluate a subject
exposition
type of fiction featuring imaginary worlds or supernatural events
fantasy
drama intended only to amuse
farce
stories, sayings, customs, songs, etc. handed down through generations
folklore
the structure of a written work parallels its meaning
frame
novel w/ mysterious atmosphere, suspenseful, brooding hero
gothic
arts style that mixes realistic and fantastic
grotesque
excessive prid or arrogance
hubris
deliberate exaggeration for sake of emphasis
hyperbole
body of beliefs reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual gorup, class or culture
ideology
a colorful stylistic expression of a person or group with non literal meaning
idiom
reversing the order, arrangement or position of something
inversion
literary movement of early 20th ventury using ordinary languary, free verse, everday imagery
imagism
style of art that focuses on the overall general tone and effect w/o specifiying detail
impressionism
things that don't fit w/ each other or are out of context
incongruity
expression fo mourning or grief
lament
charcter or story based on historic figures and events
legend
understatement-saying less than is true
litotes
use of regional detail to add interest to a narrative
local color
lit. in which supernatural evens are told in a matter-of-fact way
magical realism
dramatic/literary work w/ stereotypical characters, exagg. emotion, simplistic
melodrama
comparison w/o like or as, can be implicit or explicit
metaphor
English poets who blended emotion with intellectual ingenuity; paradoxes, elaborate conceits
metaphysical
humorously imitates traditional epic form, treats insig. event as heroic
mock-heroic
early 20th centiry art and lit. that was reaction against trad. forms
modernism
long passage in play or film spoken by one actor only
monologue
relating issues to right and wrong and how someone should behave
moral
the act of giving someone a reason or incentive to do something
motivation
story of uncertain origin that seeks to exlplain processes of nature, the human race, or traditions
myth
a story or account of sequence of events in the order in which they happened
narrative
writing gloryifying nature
naturalism
ability o perceive or describe something w/o being influenced by emotion or prejudice
objectivity
Biblical story w/ moral lesson
parable
restate a text or passage, usually in abbreviated form
paraphrase
may borrow the form or style of another text
parody
literature, usually poetry that celebrates the pleasures of country life
pastoral
quality that arouses pity or sadness
pathos
giving human qualities to inanimate objects
personification
the idea that the good are rewarded and the evil are punished
poetic justice
liberty taken by a writer in word order, rhyme, etc.
poetic license
a practical understanding and acceptance of the nature of the world rather than the idealized view
realism
loyalty to or prejudice in favor of a part. region
regionalism
the way in which conflict is resolved
resolution
state something again for emphasis
repetition
imaginative medieval story of heroic knights, contains supernatural elements and a moral
romance
19th century British authors, idealizes life, emphasis on nature and emotion
romanticism
analysis of verse according to the rules of meter
scansion
the practice of indulging in emotion or nostalgia
sentimentality
direct comparison using like or as
simile
a realistic portrayal of life, realistic scene
slice of life
monologue by character on stage speaking to humself but addressed to audience
soliloquy
oversimplified standardized image or idea of a person or group
stereotype
framework put together form many different parts, the way parts link or function
structure
story secondary to main story
subplot
movement that depicted the subconscious mind with fantastic or contradictory imagery
surrealism
form of deductive reasoning-major premise, minor premise and conclusion
syllogism
the proposition of argument summarizingthe theme of a work
thesis
drama portraying conflict between individual human will and fate
tragedy
mistaken judgement, weakness of character, defect
tragic flaw/hamartia
philosophy of Emerson and New England writers emphasizes intuition and the divine
transcendentalism
saying less than is true
understatement
everday language of he common people
vernacular
the speaker's meaning is the opposite of the usual or understood meaning
verbal irony
contradiction between what is real and what is preceived
irony
the outcome expected turns out to be the opposite
situational irony
character w/ limited knowledge says, does or encounters something of greater sig. that he or she knows
dramatic irony
occurs when fate or the gods step in to lead a human being into an unexpected turn of events
cosmic irony
a noble character is undone by mistaken judgement
tragic irony
appeal to tradition
Ad Antiquitatem
appeal to force
Ad Baculum
argument of the man-character rather than the issue
Ad Hominem
a premise is true because it has not been proven false
Ad Ignorantiam
appeal for sympathy
Ad Misericordiam
appeal to a crowd
Ad Populum
appeal to authority
Ad Vericundiam
assuming something to be true that really needs proof
Begging the Question
faulty dilemma-presents 2 choices when there are 3 or more in reality
Bifurcation
arguing that the whole gorup must have the same characteristics as its members
Composition
arguing the each idividual has the characteristics of the group
Division
using the same term with different meanings
Equivocation
wrongful comparisons of dissimilar situations
False Analogy
assumes similarities among comrades
Guilt By Association
two few instances to reach an accurate conclusion
Hasty Generalization
"it does not follow"
Non Sequitor
"after this because of this" attempts to prove that because a 2nd event followed a first, it was the result of the first
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
asking a question in a way that leads to a particular answer
Rhetorical Question
one action will initiate a chain of events leading to an undesirable even later
Slippery Slope
set up argument similar to opponent bust easty to refut, then attribute position to him
Straw Man