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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
simple past(preterite)
I wrote;He wrote
He did not write
Did he write?
Did he not write? (Didn't he write?)
-sim word order change for neg interrog
-preterite form only used in affirm
-used for a single past event,or past habitual action and for narration
-has emphatic forms with "do" like simple present
-time frame is abs past vs pres perf which incls pres in some way
-"used to" best incl here e.g When I was young I played every.. vs When I was young I used to play every .. which stresses regularity and that it is discontinued
progressive past(past continuous; imperfect)
I was writing; He was writing
He was not writing
Was he writing?
Was he not writing?(Wasn't he writing?)
-typic. for 2 events in parallel: While I was doing A, my wife was doing B
-for an interrupted action (the past simple is the interruption):While I was doing A I heard xxxx
-for focus in a point in the middle of a longer action: At 3 yesterday I was working ....(vs I worked all day yeterday)
perfect past(pluperfect)
I had written; He had written
He had not/hadn't written
Had he written?
Had he not written? (Hadn't he written?)
perfect progressive past(pluperfect progressive;continuous)
I had been writing; He had been writing
He had not/hadn't been writing
Had he been writing?
Had he not been writing?(Hadn't he been writing?)
-used sim. wrt past perfect as present perfect progressive relates to present perfecct, although usu used w less precision
simple present
I write; He writes
He does not(doesn't) write
Does he write?
Does he not write?(Doesn't he write?)
-can refer to habitual: he writes about....
-used with stative: he thinks xxx are ....
-future meaning(infreq): she goes to xxx on Tuesday; becomes habitual if Tuesday is plural
progressive present
I am writing; He is writing
He is not writing
Is he writing
Is he not writing? (Isn't he writing?)
-at this very moment
-may have fut ref when plans already in place: I am flying tomorrow
-w "always" sugg irritation e.g. He always does xxx vs He is always doing xxx
-sim to simple pres in word order flip for neg interr
perfect present(perfect)
I have written; He has written
He has not written
Has he written?
Has he not written? (Hasn't he written?)
-"perfect" refers to a past-only tense in other germ langs
-a past tense
-can be focus on present: Finally, by now,which I finished in the past, I have written
-may have time frame incl pres: I have lived here since ...(and still do). Ex "(morning)Have you written a letter this morning?" vs "(afternoon)Did you write a letter this morning?"
-used with advs already, recently or in since clauses
-desp. name "perfect" can be habitual ( I have written since...) or cont (I have lived here for...)
-"have done" used for fut: When you have written it...
-forms past infinitive when infinite reqd in past ref: Mozart is said to have written... vs He wrote it ..(infinitve not nec.)
perfect progressive present
I have been writing; He has been writing
He has not been writing
Has he been writing?
Has be not been writing?(Hasn't he been writing?)
-an unbroken action in the past continuing right up to the present
simple future
I will write; He will write
He will not write
Will he write?
Will he not write? (Won't he write?)
-formed with auxiliarys Shall and Will
-also a future with "go" for intended actions and the weather that is more common in colloq speech
-will future used for spontaneous decisions
progressive future
I will be writing; He will be writing
He will not/won't be writing
Will he be writing?
Will he not be writing? (Won't he be writing?)
-used esp. to indicate an event that will be in progress at a particular point in the fut: This time tomorrow I will be....
perfect future
I will have written; He will have written
He will not/won't have written
Will he have written?
Will he not have written? (Won't he have written?)
-used for s.t which will be completed by a certain time or that leads up to a point in the fut being focused on: I will have finished my essay by... or By then she will have been there for xxx (time)
perfect progressive future
I will have been writing; He will have been writing
He will not/won't have been writing
Will he have been writing?
Will he not have been writing?(Won't he have been writing?)
intensive past
I did write
habitual past
I used to write
future in the past
I was going to write
intensive present
I do write; He does write
He does not (doesn't) write
Does he write
Does he not write? (Doesn't he write?)
-neg and interr same as simple past ones
-usu used in resp to "Does he write?" to say "yes, indeed"
-attachment of n't (negative particle) to "do" is fr arch "Does not he write?"
shall future
I shall write
"going-to" future
I am going to write
I would write
perfect conditional
I would have written
if I be, if I were