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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
components of studying litearture
research
criticism
how to criticize
analysis: seperate it into parts
evaluate: be able to explain it to other people
3 elements of literature
subject + style = effect
subject
imaginative or non-imaginative

imaginative:
-poetry (form and sound devices)
-narrative prose fiction (novel, novella, short story
-drama (narrative elemnts, dramatic elements)
5 narrative elements
-plot
-characters
-conflict
-POV
-setting
style
diction
syntax
structure
diction
basic word choice
syntax
arrangement of words
structure
selection and arrangement of any of the elements
types of effects
emotional
intellectual
artistic
componeents of effects
mood
tone
theme
moods
pathos
humor
horror
suspense
tones
irony
anger
non-emotional
objective
approval
criticism
humorous
serious
themes
didactic
expository
social criticism
classification of literature
mode
purpose
genre
conventional vs. modern
modes of literature
Narration(tells a story)
Exposition(explanatory)
Rhetoric(persuades)
Description(describes)
purposes of literature
to delight and instruct
self-expression
social criticism
to inform
to persuade
for exploratory purposees
for artistic purposes
entertainment
genre
works with common elements of subject and/ or style
conventional vs. unconditional (modern)
tradition: how it was done in the past
convention: a shared blief about literature (like symbols)
symbols
skylark = joy
parrot = repetition
owl= wisdom, doom
raven = death, bad omens
white = purity, innocence
17th Century Writers
explorers (john smith)
settlers (planter-aristocrats and puritans
19th Century writers
revolutionary war, enlightenment
Puritan sect
seperatists
puritans form
Plymouth
Salem
Boston
puritans settle
1820s
1830s (Boston)
Providence
God's ordering of events to reward the good of punish the evil
total depravity of man
human beings are innately evil because of Adam
Predestination of the Elect
they were chosen by God before Creation
how to become a Predestined elect
read the Bible and go to church
serach yourself for a "sign of election"
conversion experience (impt because you have to take communion to be political, commends hysteria, makes wordly success holy)
why aren't there any significant plays until the 20th century?
the Puritans got rid of the theatre
pragmatism
writing with a serious purpose in mind
style
Plain (effects Dickinson and Hemingway)
typology
symbolism (letting one thing stand for another)
The Puritan American Dream
material success derived from business
(believed that God didn't love you if you are poor)
work ethic
inherited wealth and social status are evil so you must have it
Puritan conflict between God and government
people need a strong central government, but the only legit one is God
predestination
deterministic (for objective mood- its not your fault)
Romantic Period
1800-1860
peak at 1850
characteristics of history of Romantic period
*expanision in population and territory- Louisiana Purchase gives people an optimistic tone
*beginning of shift from Agrarian lifestyle to business from self-sufficient farms to industrialism (you work for someone else for money), which leads to a higher standard of living
benefits of a high living
people have more cash
leisure
education
first professional writers
Romantic social reform
labor reform, feminism, abolition
"the problem of the artist"
poverty
Cooper: "degrades art to the lowest common denominator"
nationalism
the desire to develop a uniquely American culture in literature
the short story
developed because of nationalism- deliberately trying to make something new
uniquely American writers
Irving
Hawthorne
Poe
how Romantic authors blended the old and the new
take conventional genres based on American materials
-Bryant
-Cooper (Am history) based on Scott (Eng history)
-Hawthorne (romance set in Boston)
early Romantics
Irving
Cooper
Bryant
Dark Romantics
Poe
Hawthorne
Mehlville
Neoclassical Purpose
vs
Romantic Purpose
to delight and instruct
vs
self expression of the author's emtotions
creation of beauty
literature to make a profit
Neoclassical style
vs
Romantic
decorum
vs
innovative and unique
ogranicism: literature grows naturally from an idea, not from rules
oganicism
the belife that something is alive
neoclassical subject
vs
Romantic subect
man and his role in society
vs
nature, natural beauty
supernatural, legendary material
exotic and imaginary
typical Romantic genres
lyric poetry
gothic fiction
historical fiction
Neoclassical reason
vs
Romantic
applying reason to all aspects of human life
vs
nonrational states
intuition
the direct perception of truth without the senses or reason
transcendentalism associated with where
Concord, Massachusetts
spokespeople of transcendentalism
Emerson
Thoreau
transcendentalism begins with with and ends with what event
begins with Nature
ends with Civil War
why did transcendentalism end?
increased materialism in the post war era
negative influences on transcendentalism
18th century rationalism and emphasis on intuition (they believed in intuition too)
dark Romantic pessimism (they went for optimism)
positive influences on transcendentalism
unitarianism
platonic idealism
Pantheism
unitarianism
One God
founded by Channing
man is innately good
platonic idealism
-the belief that reality is spiritual and not physical
ideal and not intellectual
-only permanence is the world of the spirtual
-difference between the brain and the mind
Pantheism
Hinduism
all thingsa re a part of God
comes from Sanskrit holy texts
Romantics were the first American thinkers to be influeced by them
important Romantic figures
Bronson and Louisa May Alcott
Margaret Fuller
the Peabody sisters
three major beliefs of transcendentalism
-the Over-Soul
-individual souls are not seperate and they all have direct and equal access to the truth
-Self Reliance
the Over-Soul
a single soul shared by all beings with truth in the middle
individual souls
have direct and intuitive connections with other souls
-put them together to find the truth
Self-Reliance
the bleif that the individual ought to rely on his own intuition
do not rely on tradition or authority
implications of the Over-Soul
self-reliance
man's kinship with nature
brotherhood of man
importance of the common man
man's kinship with nature
people and created things have equal access ot the truth
examples of the brotherhood of man
abolitionist movement
governmental reforms (a real democracy)
equal education entailing the awekening of skills and ideas
nonconformity
the refusal to conform to conventions which are wrong
parts of nonviolent social reform
nonconformity
passive resistance
civil disobedience
civil disobedience
a refusal to obey unjust laws
passive resistance
rebellion against unjust authority by nonviolent refusal to cooperate with willing acceptance of the consequences
transcendentalism influence on modern culture
civil rights movement
belief in spreading democracy
self reliance and individualism
transcendentalism influence on modern literature
subject: the experiences of the common man
style: vernacular and direct, creates verisimilitude
socialism
the idea that we are here to serve society
conceit
unpoetic diction and imagery
chief characteristic of the Enlightenment
rationalism
deism
optimism
progress
utilitarianism
deism
the belief that there is one God and everything comes from reason
optimism
taking the best out of any given situation
-man is basically good
progress
problems can be solved using reason
utilitarianism
belief that everyting should be judged for how useful it is in making people happy
felicity
long term happiness for the greater good
18th Century literature
neoclassicism
aphorism
short, wise saying
epigram
short, witty saying
the self-made man
rises from humble beginnings to acheive success using only his own efforst and the opportunities offered by the American Way of Life
ellipsis
leaving out part of the story
the Great Awakening
religious movement abaout guilt and redemption
mid 1700s
parallelism
when units of expression are similar in structure or ideas
refutation
the speaker answers the audience's probable objections
anecdote
short narrative used to illustrate a point
analogy
comparison in non-fiction
someone from New York
knickerbocker
Yankee
a New Englander with Puritan roots
stock character
shows up in literature
stereotype character
shows up in life
noblesse oblige
duty of nobles to take care of others
Romantic hero elements
the common man
chivalric traits from Arthurian legend: chivalry, chastity, layality, truthfulness, genersity to foes
associated with nature
the antihero
protagonist that lack certain characteristics
American hero traits
the common man
shuns society
practical wisdom rather than formal education
laconic
have sobriquets
laconic
silent
stock characters of the western
tenderfoot (stupid person)
fatihful indian companion
blondes and brunettes
effects of the frontier
civilization takes away self-sufficiency
nature as a substitute for religion
race relationships
vagueness
lack of clear explanation in plot events
ambiguity
two or more choice as to what something could be
paradox
an apparent contradiction of an underlying truth
vertigo
dizziness
incantitory diction
enchanting, spell-binding diction
perversity
the individual's desires which are harmful
phrenology
the ability to tell what a person is like by their phsycial features
oblivion
freedom from torturing sensations
sinecure
surveyer of a custom house
willing suspension of disbelief
to be able to suspend your cynisism (kind of)
lyceum
somewhere that you go to hear a lecture
"poor man's college"
The American Scholar genre
classical rhetorical oratory
parts of classical rhetorical oratory
1) the introduction
2) the statement of the problem and the proposed solution
3) definition of key terms
4) preview of the stages of the argument
5) the argument
6) refutation
7) peronation (conclusion)
peronation
conclusion
valetudinarian
a sickly person