Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/267

Click to flip

267 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a(an)

Once upon a time there lived an old man.He was very poor
ga(1)-indicates the subject

ga(1)
about

1.I was in paris for about a month.
2.I was asleep until about 10 o'clock
3/4.I'ts about 9 hours by plane from tokyo to san francisco
bakari-indicates that s.t is the only thing or state
which exist, or the only action s.o will take, takes,
is taking or took.
goro-approximately (with a specific point of time)
gurai-can freely replace kurai without
a change in meaning
kurai-approximate quantitiy or extent

bakari/goro/gurai/kurai
across

We rowed across the river
o(2)-indicates a space in/on/across/through/along
which s.o or s.t moves.

o(2)
after

1.after the class i went to the library.
2.i left home after making a call to my friend
ato de-some state or action takes place at a time
(not always immediately after another state or action
has taken place.
kara(2)-after/since a point in time at which s.t
takes place.

ato de/kara(2)
after all

1/2.after all, i decided not to go there
kekkyoku-can replace yahari only when the latter means
"after all"
yahari-an adverb indicating that an actual situation
expectedly/anticipatively conforms to a standard base on
past experience, comparision with other people, or
common sense.

kekkyoku/yahari
after that

i am very busy on monday, tuesday, and
thursday, too
sore kara-indicates 1-temporally contiguous actions or
states, or 2-a cumulative listings of objects, actions or
states.

sore kara
almost did s.t.

i almost forgot my homework
tokoro da(2)-s.o/s.t is in a state where he/it is just about
to do s.t, is doing s.t, has done s.t, or has been doing s.t.

tokoro da(2)
along

i walked along 5th avenue
o(2)-indicates a space in/on/across/through/along
which s.o or s.t moves.

o(2)
a lot of

1/3.there is a lot of snow in january
2.there are a lot of students in this room
(human only)
ooi-(of quantity or number) a lot
oozei-oozei iru can replace ooi if refering to people
takusan-takusan aru/iru can replace ooi, it can also
function by itself as an adverb.

ooi/oozei/takusan/
already

1.i have already eaten my lunch
mou-s.o or s.t is no longer in the same state that he
or it was in some time ago.

mou
also

1.Mr hart went to japan.
Mr lewis also went to japan.
2.the older brother is good at tennis, and the younger
brother is also good at it
mo(1)-indicates that a proposition about the preceding
element X is also true when another similar proposition
is true.
yahari-an adverb indicating that an actual situation
expectedly/anticipatively conforms to a standard base on
past experience, comparision with other people, or
common sense.

mo(1)/yahari
althrough

1.althrough i dont like german very much,
i have to study it.
2.although Mr Shimuzu is not good at golf, he loves it.
3.i didnt get tired although i walked for four hours.
keredomo-a disjunctive sub conj that combines two S's
noni(1)-contrary to everybody's expectation based on the
S preceding noni, the proposition in the S following noni
is the case.
te mo-te mo is used when that which is expressed in the
main clause is not what is expected from the content of
the dependent(te mo) clause.

keredemo/noni(1)/te mo
and

1.Mr yamaguchi was ill and absented himself from school
2.i eat miso soup and rice every morning
3.i went to toyko today and i met my friend there.
4.this apartment is quiet and good.
5.i speak english and japanese.
6.i like bach, mozart and betthoven, among others.
7.mr yamamoto, mr smith and others are playing tennis.
de(3)-indicates a weak casual relationship
ni<to1>-can be used to combine two or more objects
that usually come as a set.
soshite-a cord conj that connects two S's
te-the te form
to(1)-a prt which lists things exaustively
toka-a conj that lists two or more items, actions or
states as inexhaustive examples.
ya-a cord conj that is used to list two or more items
(nouns or NP's) in an inexhaustive fashion.

de(3)/ni<to1>/soshite/te/to(1)/toka/ya
and so on

a lot of students from china, korea and so on come
to this college.
nado-a marker that indicates exemplification.

nado
and the like

in college i studied french and german and the like.
nado-a marker that indicates exemplification.

nado
and then

i did my homework until 10 o'clock. and then, i
went to the movie
sore kara-indicates 1-temporally contiguous actions or
states, or 2-a cumulative listings of objects, actions or
states.

sore kara
and what is more

here it's hot in the summer, and whats more,
its cold in the winter.
shi-indicates "and" in an emphatic way

shi
any

I haven't got any money
mo(2)-a marker that indicates emphasis

mo(2)
appear

1/2.Mr ueda appears to like boxing.
souda(2)-indicates that what is expressed by the
preceding S is the speaker's conjecture concerning an
event in the future or the present state of s.o or s.t,
based on what the speaker sees or feels.
youda-expresses the likelihood of s.t/s.o or the likeness
of s.t/s.o to s.t/s.o

souda(2)/youda
approximately

1.i was in paris for about a month
2/4.about how much was that car?
3.i cant walk as fast as you can.
bakari-indicates that s.t is the only thing or state
which exist, or the only action s.o will take, takes,
is taking or took.
gurai-can freely replace kurai without
a change in meaning
kurai-approximate quantitiy or extent
hodo-indicates an extent or a degree to which s.o/s.t
does s.t or is in some state.

bakari/gurai/kurai/hodo
around

i was asleep until about 10 o'clock
goro-approximately (with a specific point of time)

goro
as

1.im using this room as a storeroom.
2.please write it down as i tell you
to shite-indicates the capicity, role or
function of s.o or s.t
youni(2)-an adverbial form of youda

to shite/youni(2)
as expected

1/2.as expected japanese beer is good
yahari-an adverb indicating that an actual situation
expectedly/anticipatively conforms to a standard base on
past experience, comparision with other people, or
common sense.
yappari-a more emphatic and emotive version of yahari

yahari/yappari
as far as

it takes 3 hours by bullet train from toyko to kyoto.
made-indicates a spatial, temporal or quantitive limit
or an unexpected animate/inanimate object.

made
as for

As for dessert, I'd better skip it today
wa(1)-a prt which marks a topic or a contrastive element

wa(1)
as it is

i'll leave this place as it is.
mama-an already given situation or condition
remains unaltered.

mama
as many/much/long as ~

i know as many as 8000 kanji.
mo(2)-a marker that indicates emphasis


mo(2)
at

1.we drank coffee at a coffee shop.
2.this concert will be over at ten o'clock
3.i get up at 6:30 every morning.
4.mr hill is at mr johnson's apartment now
de(1)-indicates location, except for location of existence
de(4)-indicates the time when s.t terminates or the
amount of time a period of activity has taken
ni(1)-indicates a point of time at which s.t takes place.
ni(6)-indicates the location where s.o or s.t exists

de(1,4)/ni(1,6)
at the time when

hiroshi caught cold at exam time.
toki-a dependent noun which indicates the time when
s.o/s.t will do/does s.t or the time when s.o/s.t will
be/is/was in some state.

toki
audible

that sound is too weak and is not audible
kikoeru-s.t is passively and spontaneously audible.

kikoeru
be

1.there are two tv sets in my apartment.
2.there are pandas in this zoo.
aru(1)-an inanimate thing exists
iru(1)-an animate thing exists

aru(1)/iru(1)
be -able

i can read japanese
rareru(2)-indicates potential

rareru(2)
be able to

1.mr johnson can write letters in japanese
2.i can read japanese
koto ga dekiru-doing s.t is possible
rareru(2)-indicates potential

koto ga dekiru/rareru(2)
be about to do s.t.

harue is just about to eat her supper.
tokoro da(2)-s.o/s.t is in a state where he/it is
just about to do s.t, is doing s.t, has done s.t,
or has been doing s.t.

tokoro da(2)
because

1.please come tomorrow because im busy today.
2.how come you dont go there? cause im busy.
3.because i drank a lot of sake, i got sleepy.
kara(3)-expresses a reason or a cause
mono(da)-the speaker presents some situation as if it
were a tangible object.
node-expresses a reason or cause

kara(3)/mono(da)/node
because ~ not ~

i couldnt get up at 7 and was late for work.
nakute-indicates a cause/reason for a state or action

nakute
because of

1/2. windows could not start because
of a disk hardware failure.
de(3)-indicates a weak casual relationship
tame ni-a noun that indicates a benefit, a purpose, a
reason or a cause

de(3)/tame (ni)
be done

its been told to john already.
aru(2)-s.t has been done to s.t and the resultant state of
that action remains.

aru(2)
be -ed

ichiro was decieved by hanako.
rareru(1)-a state or an action cannot be controlled
by s.o or s.t

rareru(1)
before

1.mr jackson studied nihongo before he went to nihon
2.there is s.t i want to tell you before i forget.
mae ni-in front of or before some situation comes about
uchi ni-during a period when a certain situation
remains in effect.

mae ni/uchi ni
begin to

1.suddenly it began to rain.
2.i'll begin to write my paper tomorrow.
3.now i have begun to understand computers.
dasu-s.t that has been latent is realized.
hajimeru-s.o/s.t begins to do s.t or begins to be in
in some state.
kuru(2)-indicates the beginning of some process or
continuation of some action up to a current point of time.

dasu/hajimeru/kuru(2)
be in a place where it
takes ~ to get to

my school is in a place where it takes 30 mins to
get to from home by bus.
tokoro da(1)-a place is in a location which takes a
certain amount of time to get to.

tokoro da(1)
be -ing

mr sasaki is drinking sake.
iru(2)-s.o or s.t is doing s.t he or it started some time
ago, or is in a state created by an action he or it took
some time ago.

iru(2)
be in the midst of doing s.t.

harue is in the midst of eating her supper.
tokoro da(1)-a place is in a location which takes a
certain amount of time to get to.

tokoro da(2)
be like

that person looks like prof tanaka.
youda-expresses the likelihood of s.t/s.o or the likeness
of s.t/s.o to s.t/s.o

youda
be ready to do s.t.

mr matsuyama has just arrived in chicago now.
bakari-indicates that s.t is the only thing or state
which exist, or the only action s.o will take, takes,
is taking or took.

bakari
both ~ and ~

both mr tanaka and mr nakayama are working
for a department store.
mo ~ mo ~ the repeated use of a prt meaning "also" to
list elements belonging to the same part of speech.

mo ~ mo ~
but

1.john came but mary didnt.
2,3,4,5- all similar
ga(2)-a disjunctive cord conj that combines two S's
others-expresses the same idea but daga dakedo
demo and shikashi cannot make compound S's like
ga does, they must occur at the beginning of a S.

daga/dakedo/demo/ga(2)/
keredomo/shikashi
by

1.we came by taxi
2.i'll come home by 10 o'clock.
3.the child was scolded by it's mother
de(2)-indicates the use of s.t for doing s.t
made (ni)-indicates a time limit on/for an action.
ni(3)-indicates an agent or a source in passive,
causative, morau/te morau and other recieving
constructions.

de(2)/made ni/ni(3)
by (the time when)

please read this book by the time school starts.
made (ni)-indicates a time limit on/for an action.

made ni
called

i read a novel called snow country
to iu-a phrse marking info which identifies or explains
the noun following the phrase.

to iu
can do s.t.

1/2.mr johhson can write letters in nihongo.
koto ga dekiru/rareru(2)
can hear

i could hear the temple bell, but my brother couldnt.
kikoeru-s.t is passively and spontaneously audible.

kikoeru
cannot do s.t.

you must not enter this room.
wa ikenai-indicates prohibition

wa ikenai
can see

i can see distant objects well.
mieru-s.o or s.t is passively/spontaneously visible.

mieru
come

mr tanaka will come to my home tomorrow.
kuru(1)-s.o or s.t moves in a direction towards the
speaker or the speaker's viewpoint or area of empathy.

kuru(1)
come about

suddenly while we were playing tennis, it began to rain.
kuru(2)-indicates the beginning of some process or
continuation of some action up to a current point of time.

kuru(2)
come to

suddenly while we were playing tennis, it began to rain.
kuru(2)-indicates the beginning of some process or
continuation of some action up to a current point of time.

kuru(2)
continue

i intend to keep reading 1 book a day from now on.
iku(2)-some action or state keeps changing from the
point in time at which the speaker first describes
the action.

iku(2)
considering that

considering that he was a wrestler, he is small.
ni shite wa-indicates a generally agreed upon
standard (the entire S that includes this phrase
expresses some deviation from that standard.)

ni shite wa
cost

about how much did it cost?
suru(4)-indicates how much s.t costs or a
duration of time.

suru(4)
decide on

i've decided on this apartment.
ni suru-s.o has decided on s.t

ni suru
decide to do s.t

1/2.i decided to make a trip to hawaii this summer.
koto ni kimeru-determine to do s.t(important
decision in a decisive manner)
koto ni suru-a volitional decision to do s.t is made

koto ni kimeru/koto ni suru
despite the fact that

in spite of the fact that mr hall is an american,
he doesnt like meat.
noni(1)-contrary to everybody's expectation based on the
S preceding noni, the proposition in the S following noni
is the case.

noni(1)
difficult to do s.t.

his name is hard to remember.
nikui-s.t or s.o is hard to ~

nikui
dislike

i dont like cheese
kiraida-s.t or s.o is what s.o does not like

kiraida
do

i am studying chinese.
suru(1)-s.o/s.t causes a state or action to take place

suru(1)
do in such a way that

i'll make sure that i do exercises everyday.
youni suru-s.o causes some circumstantial or
behavioral change to take place

youni suru
do me or s.o. a favor by doing s.t.

my mother baked a cake for me.
kureru(2)-s.o does s.t as a favor to the first person
or to s.o with whom the speaker empathizes

kureru(2)
do not do ~ and ~

nancy went to school yesterday without
eating her breakfast.
nai de-neg te form of a verb

nai de
don't do s.t.

1.dont come home any more!
2.you must not enter this room.
na-a neg imperative marker used by a male speaker
in very informal speech
wa ikenai-indicates prohibition

na/wa ikenai
do s.o. a favor by doing s.t.

mr tanaka lent a book to mr smith.
ageru(2)-s.o gives some action as a favor to a
person who is not a member of the giver's in-group
but whose status is about equal to that of the giver

ageru(2)
do s.t. and see

i will read nihongo novels to see what they are like.
miru-do s.t to see what it's like or what will happen

miru
do s.t. for s.o.

i consoled haruko.
ageru(2)-s.o gives some action as a favor to a
person who is not a member of the giver's in-group
but whose status is about equal to that of the giver

ageru(2)
do s.t. too much

mr wilson eats too much meat.
sugiru-s.o/s.t does s.t excessively or is in a state
excessively

sugiru
do things like ~ and ~

we did things like singing and dancing.
~ tari ~ tari suru-expresses an inexhaustive listing of
actions or states

~ tari ~ tari suru
due to

my father was hospitalized due to a traffic accident.
de(3)-indicates a weak casual relationship

de(3)
during(the time when)

1.while i was eating my meak, mr yamada came in.
2.he frequently asked questions during the class.
3.my stomach started to ache while i was running.
aida (ni)-the space between two temporal
physical points
chuu(ni)-naka with ni particle
uchi ni-during a period when a certain situation
remains in effect.

aida (ni)/chuu(ni)/uchi ni
easy to

this kanji is easy to memorize.
yasui-s.t or s.o is easy to ~

yasui
either

you cant buy fresh fish in this town. You cant buy
it in the next either.
mo(1)-indicates that a proposition about the preceding
element X is also true when another similar proposition
is true.

mo(1)
either ~ or ~

it's either that this book is wrong or that i am wrong.
soretomo-a cord conj which connects two alternatives
expressed by S's

soretomo
even

1.even a teacher makes mistakes.
2.he even likes snakes, not to mention rats.
3.i dont even know one kanji.
demo-the te-form of desu plus mo "even"
made-indicates a spatial, temporal or quantitive limit
or an unexpected animate/inanimate object.
mo(2)-a marker that indicates emphasis

demo/made/mo(2)
even if

1.even if i tell him that, he wont understand it.
2.ill go there even if it rains.
tatte-even if s.o did s.t or s.t were in some state (the
desired result would not come about) or even if s.o
or s.t is in some state
te mo-te mo is used when that which is expressed in the
main clause is not what is expected from the content of
the dependent(te mo) clause.

tatte/te mo
even though

althrough mr shimizu is not good at golf, he loves it.
noni(1)-contrary to everybody's expectation based on the
S preceding noni, the proposition in the S following noni
is the case.

noni(1)
every

1.this train stops at every other station.
2.i swim one mile every day
3.this train stops at every third station.
goto ni-s.t takes place regularly in succession after
a certain temporal or spatial interval
mai-a prefix which means "every (unit of time)"
oki ni-s.t is repeated at certain intervals

goto ni/mai-/oki ni
exist

1.the eiffil tower is paris.
2.lee is in this dorm.
aru(1)-an inanimate thing exists
iru(1)-an animate thing exists

aru(1)/iru(1)
feel

this cloth feels rough.
suru(3)-s.t is perceived by s.o's non-visual senses

suru(3)
feel like

it looks like it will rain.
souda(2)-indicates that what is expressed by the
preceding S is the speaker's conjecture concerning an
event in the future or the present state of s.o or s.t,
based on what the speaker sees or feels.

souda(2)
few

1.there are few crimes in nihon.
2.the money i possess is very little.
sukunai-small in number or quantity
wazuka-insignificant number or amount of ~
used before a noun or in a predicate position or
as an adverb

sukunai/wazuka
finish doing s.t.

1.i finally finished writing a paper.
2.Mr ikeda finished reading the book in 3 days.
-owaru-finish doing ~
shimau-indicates the completion of an action

-owaru/shimau
for

1.larry brought this chair for 10 dollars.
2.i often write letters to my mother.
3.for august it is cool, isnt it.
4.this steak is inexpensive for japanese steak.
de(2)-indicates the use of s.t for doing s.t
ni(2)-an indirect object marker
ni shite wa-indicates a generally agreed upon
standard (the entire S that includes this phrase
expresses some deviation from that standard.)
to shite wa-a compound prt which indicates a
standard for comparisons

de(2)/ni(2)/ni shite wa/ to shite wa
~ for example

among nihonjin foods i like things like sushi and tempura.
nado-a marker that indicates exemplification.

nado
for the purpose of ~

1.i use a dictionary to read japanese newspapers
2.it was for the purpose of buying perfume that i
went to france.
noni(2)-in the process or for the purpose of doing s.t
expressed in the no-nominalized clause
tame ni-a noun that indicates a benefit, a purpose, a
reason or a cause

noni(2)/tame (ni)
for the sake of ~

im swimming every day in the pool in order
to strengthen my body.
tame ni-a noun that indicates a benefit, a purpose, a
reason or a cause

tame (ni)
from

1.we made tofu from soybeans.
2.this bus came from new york.
3.jane took lessons in flower arranging from mr yamano.
de(2)-indicates the use of s.t for doing s.t
kara(1)-indicates a starting point or source
ni(3)-indicates an agent or a source in passive,
causative, morau/te morau and other recieving
constructions.

de(2)/kara(1)/ni(3)
get

i got a book from mr tanaka.
morau(1)-the first person or s.o the speaker
empathizes with receives s.t from s.o whose status
is not as high as the reciever's

morau(1)
get -ed

i got my cake eaten by my brother.
rareru(1)-a state or an action cannot be controlled
by s.o or s.t

rareru(1)
get s.o to do s.t

my friend made me pay a tip.
saseru-cause s.o/s.t to do s.t or cause s.t to
change its state

saseru
get to know

do you know chinese?
shiru-s.o gets info from some outside source.

shiru
give

1.i gave yoshiko flowers.
2.Mr okawa gave me a book.
ageru(1)-s.o gives s.t to a person who is not a
member of the giver's in-group but whose status
is about equal to that of the giver
kureru(1)-s.o whose status is not higher than the
speaker's gives s.t to the first person or to s.o with
whom the speaker empathizes.

ageru(1)/kureru(1)
go

i went from toyko to osaka by bus.
iku(1)-s.o or s.t moves in a direction away from the
speaker or the speaker's viewpoint

iku(1)
go ahead and do s.t.

since we are having a party tomorrow,
i bought some beer for it..
oku-do s.t in advance for future convenience

oku
go on -ing

i went on taking notes on things i didnt understand.
iku(2)-some action or state keeps changing from the
point in time at which the speaker first describes
the action.

iku(2)
grow

i've started to gain weight these days.
kuru(2)-indicates the beginning of some process or
continuation of some action up to a current point of time.

kuru(2)
had better do s.t.

you'd better read japanese books.
hou ga ii-it is strongly suggested that s.o do s.t

hou ga ii
hard to do s.t.

this book is very hard to read.
nikui-s.t or s.o is hard to ~

nikui
have

1.in this town are 3 universites.
2.yoko has long legs.
3.elephants have long trunks.
aru(1)-an inanimate thing exists
suru(2)-s.o or s.t has some (semi)permanent attribute
~ wa ~ ga-a construction which relates a
noncontrollable state of s.t or s.o to a topic

aru(1)/suru(2)/~ wa ~ ga
have been done

the window is open.
aru(2)-s.t has been done to s.t and the resultant state of
that action remains.

aru(2)
have done s.t.

1.Mr sasaki is drinking sake.
2.i have been to europe.
3.Mr. ikeda finished reading the book in 3 days.
iru(2)-s.o or s.t is doing s.t he or it started some time
ago, or is in a state created by an action he or it took
some time ago.
koto ga aru(1)-there was a time when ~
shimau-indicates the completion of an action

iru(2)/koto ga aru(1)/shimau
have just done s.t.

1/2.i have just eaten my lunch.
bakari-indicates that s.t is the only thing or state
which exist, or the only action s.o will take, takes,
is taking or took.
tokoro da(2)-s.o/s.t is in a state where he/it is
just about to do s.t, is doing s.t, has done s.t,
or has been doing s.t.

bakari/tokoro da(2)
have s.o./s.t. do s.t.

1.my father bought a camera for me.
2.my friend made me leave a tip.
morau(2)- the first person or s.o the speaker
empathizes with recieves some benefit from an action
by s.o whose status is not as high as the reciever's
saseru-cause s.o/s.t to do s.t or cause s.t to
change its state

morau(2)/saseru
have s.t. done by s.o

my father bought a camera for me.
morau(2)- the first person or s.o the speaker
empathizes with recieves some benefit from an action
by s.o whose status is not as high as the reciever's

morau(2)
have to
nai to ikenai/nakereba ikenai/
nakereba naranai/
nakute wa ikenai/
nakute wa naranai/
neba naranai
hear

i heard children's voices.
suru(3)-s.t is perceived by s.o's non-visual senses

suru(3)
how

how's your mother?
dou-an interrogative adverb which asks about the state
of s.o/s.t or the way of doing s.t


dou
how could ~!

how could you do such a foolish thing.
mono(da)-the speaker presents some situation as if it
were a tangible object.

mono (da)
how to

1.please teach me a method of studying nihongo.
2.please show me how to make a cake.
houhou-a relatively complicated way of doing s.t
"method"
-kata-indicates a way or a manner in which one
does st

houhou/-kata
i expect that ~

i expect that mr. clark will go to the party.
hazu-a dependent noun which expresses the
speaker's expectation that s.t will take place or
took place or that s.o/s.t is or was in some state.

hazu
if

1.if you take this medicine, you will get well
2.i cannot remember if i lent kenji some money.
3.if you go to chicago, go by bus
4.if you dont like it, please leave it.
5.if you are a student, there is a discount.
ba-indicates that the preceding clause expresses
a condition
ka(2)-indicates that the preceding S is interrogative
nara-indicates that the preceding S is the speaker's
supposition about the truth of a present or past fact
or the actualization of s.t in the future
tara-indicates that the action/state expresseed by the
main clause in a S takes place after the action/state
expressed by the sub clause
to(4)-marks a condition that brings about an
noncontrollabe event or state

ba/ka(2)/nara/tara/to(4)
if it is the case that ~

if it is that expensive, I cant buy it.
nara-indicates that the preceding S is the speaker's
supposition about the truth of a present or past fact
or the actualization of s.t in the future

nara
if it is true that ~

if it is true that matsuda will come, I wont go.
nara-indicates that the preceding S is the speaker's
supposition about the truth of a present or past fact
or the actualization of s.t in the future

nara
if (or not)

i dont know whether or not mr suzuki entered college.
ka(dou ka)-a marker for an embedded yes-no question

ka(dou ka)
i hear/heard that ~

i heard that meat in japan is very expensive.
souda(1)-an auxiliary which indicates that the info
expressed by the preceding S is what the speaker heard

souda(1)
i tell you

is nihongo interesting? Yes, its very
interesting, i tell you.
yo-indicates the speaker's strong conviction or assertion
about s.t that is assumed to be known only to him

yo
in

1.in australia it is summer in december.
2.my passport expires in june.
3.tanaka met his wife when he was in college.
4.there is a chinese student in my class.
5.john swam in the water.
de(1)-indicates location, except for location of existence
de(4)-indicates the time when s.t terminates or the
amount of time a period of activity has taken.
ni(1)-indicates a point of time at which s.t takes place.
ni(6)-indicates the location where s.o or s.t exists
o(2)-indicates a space in/on/across/through/along
which s.o or s.t moves.

de(1,4)/ni(1,6)/o(2)
indeed ~ (but ~)

i do play tennis, but i am not good at it.
~ koto wa(~ ga)-speaking of proposition X, X is
certainly true

~ koto wa(~ ga)
indeed s.o. does s.t. alright (but ~)

i do play tennis, but i am not good at it.
~ koto wa(~ ga)-speaking of proposition X, X is
certainly true

~ koto wa(~ ga)
in front of

there is a tobacco shop in front of the station.
mae ni-in front of or before some situation comes about

mae ni
-ing

1.writing a novel is hard.
2.teaching japanese is difficult.
3.taking off my coat, i hung it on a hangar.
koto(2)-a nominalizer used to indicate the speaker's
relative lack of empathy with the content of the S he
is nominalizing
no(3)-a nominalizer which is used when the nominalized
S expresses a directly perceptible event
te-the te form

koto(2)/no(3)/te
in order to do s.t.

1/2.i use a dictionary to read japanese newspapers.
noni(2)-in the process or for the purpose of doing s.t
expressed in the no-nominalized clause
tame ni-a noun that indicates a benefit, a purpose, a
reason or a cause

noni(2)/tame ni
in place of

i taught in place of my teacher.
kawari ni-s.t (including an action) replaces s.t else

kawari ni
in spite of the fact that~

in spite of the fact that this steak is expensive,
it isnt delicous.
noni(1)-contrary to everybody's expectation based on the
S preceding noni, the proposition in the S following noni
is the case.

noni(1)
in such a way that

please write neatly so that i can read it.
youni(1)-do s.t in such a way that

youni(1)
instead of

i bought sake instead of beer.
kawari ni-s.t (including an action) replaces s.t else

kawari ni
intend to

1.i intend to get married next year.
2.i think i will read japanese history books.
tsumori da-an intention or conviction of a speaker
(or a person with whom the speaker can empathize)
about his future or past actions or current state
you to omou-the speaker desires or decides to do s.t

tsumori da/you to omou
in that case

A how long did you stay in japan?
B three years.
A then you must know a lot about japan.
sore nara-if that is the case,

sore nara
in the process of doing s.t.

i am using the bus and the train to get to work.
noni(2)-in the process or for the purpose of doing s.t
expressed in the no-nominalized clause

noni(2)
isn't it?/is it?/etc

today is a fine day isn't it.
ne-indicates the speaker's request for confirmation
or agreement from the hearer about some shared
knowledge

ne
it is all right if ~

may i use this chair?
te mo ii-a phrase which expresses permission
or concession

te mo ii
it is expected that ~

i expect that book was expensive.
hazu-a dependent noun which expresses the
speaker's expectation that s.t will take place or
took place or that s.o/s.t is or was in some state

hazu
it is natural that ~

when a man has killed another it is natural
that he should be killed.
hazu-a dependent noun which expresses the
speaker's expectation that s.t will take place or
took place or that s.o/s.t is or was in some state

hazu
it is that ~

A why dont you drink sake?
B im still seventeen.
~ no da-indicates that the speaker is explaining or
asking for an explanation about some info shared
with the hearer, or is talking about s.t emotively, as
if it were of common interest to the speaker and hearer

~ no da
it is ~ that ~

it is tv that my father hates.
~ no wa ~ da-a stucture that indicates new, important
info by placing it between no wa and the copula da(no2
is an indefinite pronoun that replaces "time","person"
"thing","place", or "reason"

~ no wa ~ da
it will be decided that ~

it has been decided that i will be employed
at a company beginning next month.
koto ni naru-an event takes place as if spontaneously,
irrespective of the speaker's volition

koto ni naru
i wonder

i wonder if mr tanaka will come.
kashira-expresses the idea that the female speaker
wonders about s.t

kashira
just

1.dennis is drinking only beer.
2.only mr smith came.
bakari-indicates that s.t is the only thing or state
which exist, or the only action s.o will take, takes,
is taking or took.
dake-expresses a limit imposed upon s.t that
is growing and expanding

bakari/dake
leave

since im going to japan next year, i will
study a little japanese ahead of time.
oku-do s.t in advance for future convenience

oku
leave as it is

i'll leave this place as it is.
mama-an already given situation or condition
remains unaltered.

mama
let's do s.t.

let's go to a movie.
mashou-indicates the first person's volition or
invitation in formal speech

mashou
let s.o/s.t. do s.t.

i think i'll let jim win this game.
saseru-cause s.o/s.t to do s.t or cause s.t to
change its state

saseru
like

1.i like steak.
2.dogs are cute, just like cats.
sukida-s.t or s.o is what s.o likes
youni(2)-an adverbial form of youda

sukida/youni(2)
little

1.there are few crimes in japan.
2.the money i possess is very little.
sukunai-small in number or quantity
wazuka-insignificant number or amount of ~
used before a noun or in a predicate position or
as an adverb

sukunai/wazuka/
look

it looks like it will rain.
souda(2)-indicates that what is expressed by the
preceding S is the speaker's conjecture concerning an
event in the future or the present state of s.o or s.t,
based on what the speaker sees or feels.

souda(2)
look as if

it seems that this place used to be a school.
youda-expresses the likelihood of s.t/s.o or the likeness
of s.t/s.o to s.t/s.o

youda
look like

1.this neighborhood seems very quiet.
2.it looks like it will rain.
3.that person looks like mr tanaka.
rashii-indicates that the preceding S is the speaker's
conjecture based on what he has heard, read or seen
souda(2)-indicates that what is expressed by the
preceding S is the speaker's conjecture concerning an
event in the future or the present state of s.o or s.t,
based on what the speaker sees or feels.
youda-expresses the likelihood of s.t/s.o or the likeness
of s.t/s.o to s.t/s.o

rashii/souda(2)/youda
make it

i've decided on this apartment.
ni suru-s.o has decided on s.t


ni suru
make s.o./s.t. do s.t.

my friend made me leave a tip.
saseru-cause s.o/s.t to do s.t or cause s.t to
change its state

saseru
manner of

i dont know how to write this kanji.
-kata-indicates a way or a manner in which one
does st

-kata
many

1/3.there are many temples in kyoto.
2.there are lots of students in this room.
ooi-(of quantity or number) a lot
oozei-oozei iru can replace ooi if refering to people
takusan-takusan aru/iru can replace ooi, it can also
function by itself as an adverb

ooi/oozei/takusan
may

A may i smoke here?
B yes you may.
te mo ii-a phrase which expresses permission
or concession

te mo ii
might

it might rain in the afternoon.
kamoshirenai-cant tell if ~

kamoshirenai
more ~ than ~

i eat more than ms ueda does.
hou ga ~yori-in comparing two entities, one is in
some state or does s.t more than the other

hou ga ~ yori
most

mr okawa is the most reliable.
ichiban-a superlative marker (most)

ichiban
Mr./mrs./miss/ms.
-sama-indicates the speaker's/writers politeness
towards s.o
-san-the informal version of -sama and therefore less
honorific and more intimate

-sama/-san
much

1/2.there is a lot of snow in january.
ooi-(of quantity or number) a lot
takusan-takusan aru/iru can replace ooi, it can also
function by itself as an adverb.

ooi/takusan
must be

mr bailey must be good at tennis.
ni chigainai-the speaker is convinced that there is
no mistake on his part in guessing s.t

ni chigainai
must do s.t.

libraries have to be quiet.
nakereba naranai-it wont due if s.o does not take
some action or if s.o or s.t is not in some state

nakereba naranai
must not do s.t.

you must not enter this room.
wa ikenai-indicates prohibition

wa ikenai
need

i need money now.
iru(3)-s.o or s.t needs s.t

iru(3)
neither ~ nor ~

this house is neither big nor small.
mo ~ mo ~ the repeated use of a prt meaning "also" to
list elements belonging to the same part of speech.

~ mo ~ mo(~ nai)
-ness

1.the freshness of the fruit was good.
2.im looking forward to it.
-sa-a suffix that makes a noun out of an adj by
attaching it to the stem of an adj(i) or much less
frequently to the stem of an adj(na)
-mi-another noun forming suffix but more emotive and
concrete characterization of some state

-sa/-mi
no ~ but

no one but mr toda smokes.
shika-marks an element X when nothing but X
makes the expressed proposition true

shika
no matter wh-

he will eat anything, even if its raw.
demo-the te-form of desu plus mo "even"

demo
(not) any

i dont know even one kanji.
mo(2)-a marker that indicates emphasis

mo(2)
(not) any longer

mr hill is not studying japanese any longer.
mou-s.o or s.t is no longer in the same state that he
or it was in some time ago.

mou
(not) ~ anymore

1.i wont drink sake anymore.
2.pat doesn't talk with me any more.
3.i cannot even write easy kanji anymore.
mou (nai)/(nai)
youni naru/naku naru
(not) as ~ as

i'm not as strong as ken.
hodo-indicates an extent or a degree to which s.o/s.t
does s.t or is in some state.

hodo
(not) ~ either

you cant buy fish in this town. You cant
buy it in the next town either.
mo(1)-indicates that a proposition about the preceding
element X is also true when another similar proposition
is true.


mo(1)
(not) even (one)

i dont know even one kanji.
mo(2)-a marker that indicates emphasis

mo(2)
not only ~ but also

he not only studies hard, but also plays a lot.
~dake de (wa) naku ~ mo-not only X but also Y,
where X and Y can be either a N,V, or adj

~dake de (wa) naku ~ mo
(not) very (much)

1/2.this book is not very good.
amari-the degree of s.t is not great
anmari-a phonological variant of amari and usually
used in conversation

amari/anmari
(not) yet

i have not been to japan yet.
mada-s.o or s.t is in some state he or it was in
some time ago

mada
no wonder
wake da-the speaker's conclusion obtained through
deductive, logical judgement or calculation on the
basis of what he has heard or read

wake da
now

haruo is all right now.
mou-s.o or s.t is no longer in the same state that he
or it was in some time ago.

mou
of

a teacher of japanese.
no(1)-a prt which, with a preceding NP, forms a
phrase to modify a following NP

no(1)
on

1.helen sang on the stage for the first time.
2.i saw the movie on tv.
3.the spring term ends on may 10.
de(1)-indicates location, except for location of existence
de(2)-indicates the use of s.t for doing s.t
de(4)-indicates the time when s.t terminates or the
amount of time a period of activity has taken.

de(1,2,4)
one

i bought a big one.
no(2)-a dependent indefinite pronoun

no(2)
only

1.dennis is drinking only beer.
2.only mr smith came.
3.i had only one bowl of rice.
bakari-indicates that s.t is the only thing or state
which exist, or the only action s.o will take, takes,
is taking or took.
dake-expresses a limit imposed upon s.t that
is growing and expanding
shika-marks an element X when nothing but X
makes the expressed proposition true

bakari/dake/shika
onto

a child has drawn a picture on the paper.
ni(4)-indicates the surface of s.t upon which some
action directly takes place

ni(4)
out of

sake is made out of rice.
kara(1)-indicates a starting point or source

kara(1)
or

1.i will go either by train or by bus.
2.is he a teacher or a doctor?
ka(1)-marks an alternative
soretomo-a cord conj which connects two alternatives
expressed by S's

ka(1)/soretomo
over

cranes are flying over the lake.
o(2)-indicates a space in/on/across/through/along
which s.o or s.t moves.

o(2)
owing to

he was kept in after school owing to his bad behavior.
tame ni-a noun that indicates a benefit, a purpose, a
reason or a cause

tame (ni)
own

1/2.mike is always studying in his own dorm room.
jibun(1)-a reflexive pronoun that refers (back) to a
human subject with whom the speaker is empathizing
jibun(2)-a reflexive pronoun that refers (back) to a
human subject, the regerent of which is contrasted
with s.o else

jibun(1,2)
per

the car is moving at 20 miles per hour.
mai-a prefix which means "every (unit of time)"

mai-
play

bill is going to play hamlet.
suru(1)-s.o/s.t causes a state or action to take place

suru(1)
please do s.t.

please dont call me late at night.
kudasai-indicates a polite request

kudasai
probably

that apartment is probably exspensive.
darou-an auxiliary indicating the speaker's conjecture
which is not based on any particular info or evidence.

darou
rather ~ than ~

I'd rather stay home than go on a trip.
yori-indicates s.t/s.o is being compared with s.t/s.o

yori(1)
reach the point where ~

mr jackson has finally reached the point
where he can speak japanese.
youni naru-some change takes place gradually

youni naru
recieve

i got a book from mr tanaka.
morau(1)-the first person or s.o the speaker
empathizes with receives s.t from s.o whose status
is not as high as the reciever's

morau(1)
's

this is my teacher's book.
no(1)-a prt which, with a preceding NP, forms a
phrase to modify a following NP

no(1)
seem

1.that story seems true.
2.it seems that this place used to be a school.
rashii-indicates that the preceding S is the speaker's
conjecture based on what he has heard, read or seen
youda-expresses the likelihood of s.t/s.o or the
likeness of s.t/s.o to s.t/s.o

rashii/youda
shall i/we do s.t.?

shall we go by car?
mashou-indicates the first person's volition or
invitation in formal speech

mashou
should

1.with an early start, they should be here by noon.
2.when you visit s.o, you should take a gift with you.
3.you'd better eat vegetables, too.
hazu-a dependent noun which expresses the
speaker's expectation that s.t will take place or
took place or that s.o/s.t is or was in some state.
mono(da)-the speaker presents some situation as if it
were a tangible object.
hou ga ii-it is strongly suggested that s.o do s.t

hazu/mono(da)/~ hou ga ii
should not do s.t.

you should not enter this room.
wa ikenai-indicates prohibition

wa ikenai
show signs of ~

my child wants to go to sleep.
garu-an aux verb attached to a psychological
or physiological adj meaning a person other than
the speaker shows signs of ~

-garu
since

1.it's already been 10 years since we bought this house
2/3.I have loved you since I first met you.
kara(2)-after/since a point in time at which s.t
takes place.
kara(3)-expresses a reason or a cause
node-expresses a reason or cause

kara(2,3)/node
smell

this smells funny.
suru(3)-s.t is perceived by s.o's non-visual senses

suru(3)
so

1.haruko is 17, so she cant drink sake yet?
2.my room is quiet, so i can study there well.
3.a had a cold yesterday. so i took a day off.
kara(3)-expresses a reason or a cause
node-expresses a reason or cause
sore de-a conj to indicate that what is stated in the
preceding S is the reason or cause for what is stated
in the following S

kara(3)/node/sore de
sometimes ~ and sometimes ~

steaks at this restaurant are sometimes big
and sometimes small.
~ tari ~ tari suru-expresses an inexhaustive listing of
actions or states

~ tari ~ tari suru
so that

please write neatly so that i can read it.
youni(1)-do s.t in such a way that

youni(1)
speaking of ~

1.speaking of mr tanaka, i wonder if he's gotton
over his illness yet.
2.speaking of kanji, they are interesting, i tell you.
3.i am a student.
to ieba-an expression which presents as the topic of a
following discourse a phrase which has just been uttered
tte(1)-a colloquial topic-introducer
wa(1)-a prt which marks a topic or a contrastive element

to ieba/tte(1)/wa(1)
start to do s.t.

1.the car started to move.
2.now i have begun to understand computers.
dasu-s.t that has been latent is realized.
kuru(2)-indicates the beginning of some process or
continuation of some action up to
a current point of time.

dasu/kuru(2)
still

1.mr kimura is still eating his lunch.
2.yukuko is still pretty.
mada-s.o or s.t is in some state he or it was in
some time ago
yahari-an adverb indicating that an actual situation
expectedly/anticipatively conforms to a standard base
on past experience, comparision with other people, or
common sense.

mada/yahari
store
-ya-a suffix attached to names of stores,inns and
japanese-style restaurants or to persons engaged
in certain occupations

-ya
take the trouble of doing s.t.

1.i appreciate your most kind offer, but i'm too
busy to go there today.
2.thanks for your trouble in bringing it to me.
sekkaku-some situation which seldom occurs has
now occurred and one can either make use of it or
to ones regret, cannot make use of it
wazawaza-intentionally take the trouble to do s.t,
althrough it is not necessary to do so

sekkaku/wazawaza
tell to do s.t.

the teacher told his students to do homework.
youni iu-tell s.o in such a way that he will do s.t

youni iu
than

japanese is more interesting than spanish.
yori-indicates s.t/s.o is being compared with s.t/s.o


yori
that's all

i went to japan only once.
dake-expresses a limit imposed upon s.t that
is growing and expanding

dake
the

there are two universities in this town.
wa(1)-a prt which marks a topic or a contrastive element

wa(1)
then

1.A this orange is not sweet.
B how about this one then.
2.yesterday i drank with my friend for about two
hours and then went home.
3.then i must be going now.
4.i bought a bike. then, my younger brother
wanted one, too.
sore de wa-if that is the case,
sore kara-indicates 1-temporally contiguous actions or
states, or 2-a cumulative listings of objects, actions or
states.
sore nara-if that is the case,
suru to-a cord conj which connects two S's (the second
S either describes an event which takes place right after
the event described in the first S or it expresses a
logical guess related to the event in the first S

sore de wa/sore kara/
sore nara/suru to
there are times when ~

there are times when takashi goes to school
without eating breakfast.
koto ga aru(2)-there are times when ~

koto ga aru(2)
there was a time when ~

there was a time when lettuce was very expensive.
koto ga aru(1)-there was a time when ~

koto ga aru(1)
therefore

He blushes,therefore he is guilty.
sore de-a conj to indicate that what is stated in the
preceding S is the reason or cause for what is stated
in the following S

sore de
thing

1.ill tell you a good thing.
2.did you see that thing.
koto(1)-a thing which is intangible
mono-tangible object

koto(1)/mono
things like

among japanese foods i like things
like sushi and tempura.
nado-a marker that indicates exemplification.

nado
think ~ will

i think i will buy that.
you to omou-the speaker desires or decides to do s.t

you to omou
though

although i didnt tell him, tom knew.
keredomo-a disjunctive sub conj that combines two S's

keredomo
through

1.lets go home through the park.
2.americans work every week from
monday through friday.
o(2)-indicates a space in/on/across/through/along
which s.o or s.t moves.
made-indicates a spatial, temporal or quantitive limit
or an unexpected animate/inanimate object.

o(2)/made
till

please wait at home until i get there.
made-indicates a spatial, temporal or quantitive limit
or an unexpected animate/inanimate object.

made
to(infinitive)

1.it is important to make good friends
when one is young.
2.going to japan is easy.
koto(2)-a nominalizer used to indicate the speaker's
relative lack of empathy with the content of the S he
is nominalizing
no(3)-a nominalizer which is used when the nominalized
S expresses a directly perceptible event

koto(2)/no(3)
to

1/3.i came all the way to tokyo
2.i often write letters to my mother.
e-indicates the direction toward which some directional
movement or action proceeds
ni(2)-an indirect object marker
ni(7)-indicates a place toward which s.o or s.t moves

e/ni(2,7)
to do s.t.

1.i went to a department store to buy a gift.
2.mr jackson went to germany for the purpose
of research.
3.it took me a month to write this paper.
ni(5)-a particle which indicates purpose when s.o
moves from one place to another
tame ni-a noun that indicates a benefit, a purpose, a
reason or a cause
noni(2)-in the process or for the purpose of doing s.t
expressed in the no-nominalized clause

ni(5)/tame ni/noni(2)
to make up for

i taught him english so to make it for it he taught
me japanese.
kawari ni-s.t (including an action) replaces s.t else

kawari ni
to the extent that

i cant walk as fast as you can.
hodo-indicates an extent or a degree to which s.o/s.t
does s.t or is in some state.

hodo
too

1.i speak spanish too.
2.mr wilson eats too much meat.
mo(1)-indicates that a proposition about the preceding
element X is also true when another similar proposition
is true.
sugiru-s.o/s.t does s.t excessively or is in a state
excessively

mo(1)/sugiru
towards

1/2.i went on a trip to toyko last week
e-indicates the direction toward which some directional
movement or action proceeds
ni(7)-indicates a place toward which s.o or s.t moves

e/ni(7)
try to do s.t.

1/2.i will read japanese novels
miru-do s.t to see what it's like or what will happen
you to suru-try to do s.t

miru/you to suru
unbearably

it is unbearably hot today.
tamaranai-the speaker or whomever he empathizes
with cannot cope with a situation expressed by
the -te phase

tamaranai
unchanged

i brought beer but i didnt drink it.
mama-an already given situation or condition
remains unaltered.

mama
understand

i dont understand this word.
wakaru-can figure out (spontaneously) various facts
such as content,nature,value,meaning,cause,reason,
result, about s.t whose existence is presupposed

wakaru
until

please wait home until i get there.
made-indicates a spatial, temporal or quantitive limit
or an unexpected animate/inanimate object.

made
up to

1.this hall can hold up to 2000 people.
2.there are up to 20 lessons in this textbook,
but this semester will stop at lesson 10.
made-indicates a spatial, temporal or quantitive limit
or an unexpected animate/inanimate object.
made de-s.t continues until/up to X (and stops at X,
although it can continue beyond X)

made/made de
used to

i used to see movies a lot.
mono(da)-the speaker presents some situation as if it
were a tangible object.

mono da
using

i turned the channel using the remote.
de(2)-indicates the use of s.t for doing s.t

de(2)
visible

from the window the ocean is visible.
mieru-s.o or s.t is passively/spontaneously visible.

mieru
want s.o to do s.t.

i want you to teach me english.
hoshii(2)-want s.o (who is not higher in status than
the speaker) to do s.t

hoshii(2)
want s.t.

i want a car.
hoshii(1)-s.t is desired by the speaker

hoshii(1)
want to do s.t.

i want to go to japan.
-tai-expresses a desire to do s.t

-tai
way of

please show me how to make a cake.
-kata-indicates a way or a manner in which one
does st

-kata
what

please tell me what you wrote in your thesis.
koto(1)-a thing which is intangible

koto(1)
what about doing s.t.?

why dont you read more japanese books?
~ tara dou desu ka-a phrase which expresses a
suggestion

~ tara dou desu ka
when

1.when i asked my teacher, i understood it right away.
2.i understood it immediately when i asked my teacher.
3.i read only when its quiet.
tara-indicates that the action/state expresseed by the
main clause in a S takes place after the action/state
expressed by the sub clause
to(4)-marks a condition that brings about an
noncontrollabe event or state
toki-a dependent noun which indicates the time when
s.o/s.t will do/does s.t or the time when s.o/s.t will
be/is/was in some state.

tara/to(4)/toki
whether

is yoshiko going to college?
ka(2)-indicates that the preceding S is interrogative

ka(2)
whether or not

do you know if mr tanaka is married or not?
ka(dou ka)-a marker for an embedded yes-no question

ka (dou ka)
while

1.mr takahashi learned golf while he was in america.
2.it is dangerous to read while walking.
3.read many books while your young.
aida (ni)-the space between two temporal
physical points
nagara-a conj which indicates that the action
expressed by the preceding verb takes place
concurrently or simultaneously with the action
expressed in the main clause
uchi ni-during a period when a certain situation
remains in effect.

aida (ni)/nagara/uchi (ni)
why dont you do s.t.?

why dont you read more japanese books?
~ tara dou desu ka-a phrase which expresses a
suggestion

~ tara dou desu ka
(i/we) will do s.t.

i will talk to him.
mashou-indicates the first person's volition or
invitation in formal speech

mashou
(i)wish ~ had done s.t.

i wish i had asked my teacher.
-ba yokatta-a phrase which expresses the
speaker's regret

-ba yokatta
with

1.we made cookies with cookie dough.
2.tom often plays tennis with john.
de(2)-indicates the use of s.t for doing s.t
to(2)-a prt marking the NP which maintains a
reciprocal relationship with the subject of the clause

de(2)/to(2)
with effort

1.i entered a good college with great effort, so i
intend to study hard
2.thanks for your trouble in bringing it to me.
sekkaku-some situation which seldom occurs has
now occurred and one can either make use of it or
to ones regret, cannot make use of it
wazawaza-intentionally take the trouble to do s.t,
althrough it is not necessary to do so

sekkaku/wazawaza
without doing s.t.

1/2.nancy went to school yesterday without
eating her breakfast.
nai de-neg te form of a verb
zu ni-can replace nai de if de of nai de retains the
original meaning of "and"

nai de/zu ni
would

if it is mr tanaka he probably would know about it.
nara-indicates that the preceding S is the speaker's
supposition about the truth of a present or past fact
or the actualization of s.t in the future

nara
would like to do s.t.

i want to drink cold beer.
-tai-expresses a desire to do s.t

-tai
yet

1.i have not been to japan yet.
2.have you done your homework yet?
mada-s.o or s.t is in some state he or it was in
some time ago
mou-s.o or s.t is no longer in the same state that he
or it was in some time ago.

mada/mou
you know

1.today is a fine day, isnt it?
2.mr tanaka doesnt smoke, you know.
ne-indicates the speaker's request for confirmation
or agreement from the hearer about some shared
knowledge
yo-indicates the speaker's strong conviction or assertion
about s.t that is assumed to be known only to him

ne/yo