Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

222 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-army of knights
originally on two ideas(knights and fiefs)
-political structure evenually grows out
-private contract
grows from feudalism- serfs bound to the land
professional warrier who fights on horseback
-trained to use lances and swords on horseback
-use chain armor then change
Salisbury Oath
-oath that primary loyalty would be given to William over the barons
-meet in Salisbury England
-William becomes knight in Wesminster
Population during the time of the Salisbury Oath
1-2 million
-knights less than 1% of the population
two people, one lord, one vassal; enter into personal relationship- considered social equals
Lord Promises in vassalage
-will protect and maintain his vassal
-economic support
do justice for vassal
-if two of your vassals in conflict take it to private court
Vassal Promises to the lord in Vassalage
-promises service(knight service)
-gives the lord advice
hand ceremony where they promise their fealty
Fealty (fidelity)
-oath of service
pieces of land given to vassals in return for service- keeps them out of the lords houses
-not a fixed amount of land
when did the fief begin?
pressure on king to let people inherit their fathers land
-until the son comes of age king can take the land and sell if for military money
relief aides
when a lord asks for assistance from his vassals
when would a lord ask for relief aides from his vassals?
-marrying off oldest daughter
-captured in war
-knighting of his first son
-until te son comes of age (21) king can take the land and sell if for military money
-if only a daughter- king assumes wardship and makes them marry people until the king gets the money for the land, then makes the husband the kings vassal
-people pay for sons to marry daughters of a lord
-king can marry a son off
-may put a socailly lower person to a family because they offer more money
women outliving men (widows)
-women get rights to 1/3 of their husbands land
-oldest sons cant take this
-when she dies property goes to husbands hier (even if step mom)
-her land goes to her heirs
when money goes back to the crown
norman kings
-never in one place to long, want to be visible
-sanitation is primitive so move so someone can clean when thy leave
-need castles
small counsol
favorite barons of williams move with him
large cousol
occasionally meet with william
-ex. for domesday book, going to war, etc
Dates of william the conquerer
Dates of William II (rufus)
Dates of Henry I
how Does william split the land that he conquers?
1/3 for himself
1/3 for church
1/3 for barons

they become williams vassals
tennets and chief
Willaims baron vassals
favoring barons?
william favored certain barons over others, he gave extra land to them
original fief
king to barron
-barrons divided their land among more fiefs
-villlages with peasants living in them who work the land for themselves and thier lord
-may have more than one manor
organized units of fiefs
did knights work on farms
-no peasants worked the farms for norman knights
anglo saxon free people
-became serfs under normans
slaves during william the conquerer
-abolishes slavery b/c of catholic principles
-keeps serfs
-working class unfree citizen
-cant carry swords
-cant move from lands in which they are bound
-kings give land to 200 barons
-barons to subvassals
-to vassals
-to knights fee

can vary in size
knights fee
fief-sufficent to serve one knight- eventually divided in half
do landholders all get political power?
-can hold court
King level court
hear civil cases that involve barons
-most about land ownership
-favored barons
-decided on war
-collecting wheat
-becomes public relationship between king and sheriff
-kings secretry lived in the kings house
-conducts business in the chapel (where he gets his name)
-every time king leaves he has to go too
-money is in sibler and gold and kept in bedroom
-keeps track of the money
-no one can get to it
Going out of court
-kings, especially Henry II leave court and travel
treasury moves
-winchester to london "Chancerie Lane"
standadized form of stationary government
collects the money that sheriffs collect
Dates of Stephans vs. Matilda's rule
Henry II's rule
Richard I or he Lionhearted's dates of rule
John's dates of rule
three most important kings in 11th and 12th centuries
William the Conquerer
Henry I
Henry II
curia regis
feudal court and consultative body that replaces Anglo-Saxon witan
goes ot of court by 1130
-place where the sheriffs went to count their money
-records were given by a tally and makeing notches in it
-sheriff gets half and exchequer gets half
-eventually met about complaints to the sherif
how many times a year do the exchquer and the sheriff meet
Barons of the Exchequer
kept track of money being collected
Pipe rolls
records of money being collected
-in london
leads to creation of royal couts
-only people ho have access to royal courts are the free men
-leaves out serfs who arent free men
-great source of money
-people want to pay it because get better justice
-good justice leads to peace
shire courts
presided over by sheriff
-inherited idea from anglo-saxon kings
-met four times a year
-found that certain acts broke kings peace
-serious acts called felonies
Kings peace
-no only hurting someone else, hurting the king
-keeping order on kings highways
-tried in shire courts
-decide need royal courts because soo many court cases
Royal parks
-cant hunt
eyre or assizes
sessions of royal court held by itinerant royal justices; met at shire court but displace th esheriff and turned it into royal court as kings representatives
-didnt go everywhere every year
-all freeholders had to attnd
-towns sent 12 representitives
-12 trustworthy serfs sent from each manor
-reported on who was doing what
-same people did judgements all over the country to keep justice the same
-only come every 3-4 years
decision or decree regulating law or judicial procedure
brief offical written document directed to a speific person order forbididng, notifying
-issued by a chancery and authenicated y royal seal
possessory writ
-actual rights are scarce because could have taken from others generations back
-most recent lawful posession
-ex. Mort d'ancestror
writ of right
ultimate right to land
-not who should have the land
-who has possession
-expensive, decided by a jury(if willing to pay)
-by end of 13th century decide theres a time before which legal memory doesnt exist
Grand Assize
makes descisons of writ's of right
should be familiar with land
-oldermen because can recall old information
-should have great memory
-pay for right to a jury
-benefit because no longger had to fight
Common law
judge on precedent (judge the way they had the year before)
Court of common pleas hear what type of court cases
-civil cases
Kings Bench
appeal to the king in the highest court
Final Justice
-kings bench ruling, takes away all other rulings
-must have writ so judge can hear your case
Assize of Claredon
-12 of every 100 men
-modern day Grand Jury
-still uses Anglo-Saxon ordeal method as an OPTION
-mentions vagabonds
people who roam- fear of these people
conflict between church and king
-only institution that competes with the monarchy in any way
-gets loyalty
-leads to conflict between kings and church
-clergy are barons of hte king
Constitution of Claredon
-all clergy are barons of the king
Thomas a Becket
-quaral based on Claredon code number 3: if clergy commits a crime, king able o try him in kings court
-issue with Henry II
-Becket Archbishop of Canterbury: concerned with liberties of the church
-henry feels betrayed
-Becket into excile
-"will no one rid me of this man?"
-knights kill becket
-murder in cathedral is bad for Henry
-henry does penets for murder
-publically repents
-people go to the place becket murdered and miricles begin to happen
-believe he is a saint
-create shrien for him so he will do favors for them in heaven
Henry II's marriage alliance
-brings him england and most of france
John vs. Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury and Pope Innocent III
-Stephen archbishop of Canterbury
-Angivin kings more french than english
-Innocent III wants stephan to be archbishop
-John wants someone else
-john seizes stephans land
-king illegally has their land so Pope excommunicates
-not effect
-pope places John under interdict very important
-john doesnt listen
-pope threatens invasion with french king
-makes peace with the pope instead
-becomes popes vassal
-pays 1000 marks a year to pope
Edward vs. Bonaface VIII
right to tax church
authroitative pronouncement by the pope
prohibition that will prevent clergy from administering the sacraments
-will go to hell because cant take scraments
-cant be baptised at birth
-no on can go through mass
secular clergy
-structured clergks, bishops, headed by archbishop of canterbury
-controlled huge amonts of land
-each parish had a certain amount of land that belonged to the priest
-cathedrals have lots of clergy
-huge amounts of wealth from land
-land worked by serfs
-some preists do their own farming
-everyone tithes
religious clergy
-live in monastaries (religious houses)- used for nuns and monks
-dedicated to God by rules of their order
-poverty, chastity, obedience
-enormous respect of monks and nuns because they live like Christ and his apostles
-many saints were monks and nuns
-many do favors for clergy giving more temptation for wealth
Archbishoprics of Canterbury and York
-divided into dioceses headed by bishops
-each bishopric diveded into parsishes with parsih priest
Glebe land
-land attached to parish to support its priest
life of self denial
-self flagilation
-physical discomfort
-deny sensual pleasure
-focus on God
Catholic Church on Ascetiscism
-modified version
-didnt believe in starving yourself in fasting
-dont want them to become self destructive
-clothing supposed to be plain
rules of living a certain way in a monastary
-go in cycles from good to tempted into wealth
-take themselves away to be away from earthly pleasures
-go to northumbria
-lots of sheep
-good wool
-make lots of money
-13th century
-son of arich merchant in italy
-st francis
-view of absolute poverty instead of following his dad's career
-formed this order
-another word for monastary
-had seats of Archbishops and bishops
Monastic Churchs
-taken down in 16th century in the time of the reformation
-only ruins remain
philip agustus
-feudal lord of english kings Richard and John-may wars between them-john loses Normandy
-if king isnt good for war, he isnt good for much
war with philip agustus over normandy
-Richard drains England resorces to pay for his ransom
-they love him because he's winning in the crusades
John's excommunication
-makes peace with pope at price of giving England to the pope and then the pope gives it back to England as a fief (needs pope's blessing to go to war)
King Johns rule
-becomes tyrannical
-doesnt abide by unwritten rules
-1214: loses Normandy
-barons threaten rebellion
-signs great charter to avoid rebellion
Great Charter/ Magna Carta
-benefit feudal classes
-made by barons so they are concerned with their own business
-need help in rebellions so do include other classes
-for free men only
16th century it will broaden to more people
-authority from ancient tradition
1st Clause of Magna carta
-about the church, as most do in the time
clause 8 of Magna Carta
-widows dont have to remarry
-balance widows and kings rights
Most significant clauses in Manga carta
12th clause of the manga carta
scutage problems
-aides cant be taken unless consulting council
-will become general taxes
39th Clause of manga carta
cant attack people without a just cause with an army
-trial by jury later
-peers? not everyone could sit on a jury
40th clause of manga carta
-people werent able to go to the courts because they were always closed- so must now stay open
John Lacland
-Jenry II's youngest son
shield money
-money a vassal payed to excuse himself from military service
-often used for mercenaries
how long did knight service last?
-40 days at a time, kings prefer to hire mercenaries because time to serve for regular knights is so little
-socaially and historically created category that represents biological sexuality, defines sexual differences, organizes the socail relations between the sexes, gender differentiaation exists everywhere, but the socail spaces, roles, activities assigned to women and men change over time; and differ from place to place
idea of women in medieval times
-women were thought of as eve
-thought women were sexually agressive and dangerous
18th century idea of women
-women no longer eve
-passive prey for men
-men are aggressive and dangerous
-Victorian women were thought to not like sex, and if they did it was against their gender so they kept quiet
20th century idea of women
-Kisney writes book on femal and male sexuality, women have more orgasams then men
-think that religion and men create more social distinctions then science
way of describing social stratification
-originated in marxism
-social divisions between groups of people that depended on their differing relations to the mean so of production and property rights; in a feudal society, for example, landlords and peasants
-an alternative way of describing socail stratification; socail divsions between different groups of people that depended n function; in medieval society, the classic distincition among people among those lines is that between those who fight, those who pray, those who work
purposeful individual human action; most frequently ask about groups we preceive to be oppressed or constrained; issue that effects all humna begins because we all are constrained by structure of society we live in
basic arrangements that distribute power and resources in a given society; establish fundamental rules that govern or shampe social behavior and relations
-"rule of fathers"
-a social organization in which the father or the eldest male is recongnized as the head of the familhy or tribe; decent and kinship is traced through the male line, hte family is concieved as the male lineage
gender differences in medieval times
-women could sell eggs and keep the money
-in some towns, men ran one business and women ran another
-where men would take claim of womens actions
-stopped in town families because women ran their own businesses
Femme sole
-women alone ran their own businesses
-status changes from the time as a daughter to a widow
is it desriable for women to marry?
yes, but they lose rights
-women begin to arrange marraiges in upper classes
-rights over property and children
wet nurses
-upper class women didnt want to nurse their own children
-thought women couldnt have sex while they nursed
places closed to women
-grammer schools teaching latin
-deliever babies
-world view; concepttual framework and set of values; a picture of the way the world is and the way it should be; set of propositions about hte relationship between the two parts
prescriptive literature
works that tell people how they ought to behave (sometimes status related)
-Simone de Beauvoir "The second sex"
Margery Kemp
-1st book written by a woman: couldnt write so she dictated autobiography to a priest
Coroners roles
gave reasons of deaths
-boys more likely to die outside
-girls inside
(shows gender roles)
womens letters
-begin to appear in 14-15th centuries
Goodman of Paris 1393
book for his new wife about how to behave
-she was young
-she would probably outlive him and he didnt want her second husband to think he didnt train her well
-under elnglsh common law, when a woman is sigle she as the same legal rights as an unmarried man
-not as free
-can sign contract
-when she gets a husband she ceases to exis legally
-all movable good, everything becomes her husbands property
-if mistreated cant do anything
-vast majority of women marry in all social classes
odds of becoming widowed
-14th century: women outlive men, if they outlive child bearing they were likely to outlive husbands
-characteristic of england only
13th Century Plantagenent Kings
-Henry III
-Edward I
Henry III Dates & Background
1216-1272: Infant son of John shortly after manga carta
-1227 finally takes over
-barons rule until then
Edward I Dates & background
-1272-1307; henry III's eldest son
constitutional problems
-kings wont obey charters
-Popes allwing king sto go against oaths
-barons want to wage war because of 61st clause
61st clause of manga carta
-if kings or officals arent following manga carta then barons with support of community can use force against the king and his officals
-right to wage war on the king
Charter of the forest
-normans declare certain lands forest
-no one can hunt on that area
-Henry II claimed 1/4 of englands lands
forest land regualtions
-cant cut down trees
-no building of mines
-no fishing
-barons cant even use their own lands because its the kings
-even areas that kings never went to were claimed rorest (get timber)
-Essex all forest
-can buy licesne for exemption
-disservice to those who have farmland in the middle of forests (cant kill rabbits)
-everyone unhappy
-could pay large sum to deforest land
Henry III's additions to the forest charter
-try to reduce forest land
-go back to forest land of Henry II
-no capitol punishment for killing deer but can be in preison for a year and a day
-exciled if no one bails you out
Henry III comees of age
-wants to rule independly of the barons
-barons consider themselves advisors
-henry turns to his mostly french relatives
-barons force him to sign magna carta
-calls pope, pope relieves him
Bad harvest in Henry III's time
-less money to the lords
-lords cant send money to the king
Invasion of Sicily
-pope convinces Henry III to invade sicily because pope doesnt liek them
-each of henry's sons will now have a possession
-but fail and drain resources
-barons threaten rebellion and force him to sign provision of oxford
who invades sicily
Henry III
Provisions of Oxford
1258: Permanant Baronial Council
-should take barons advice
-traditional offices of chacellor and treasure all have to be re established
-all money should go to exchequer not king
-panel of 4 knights should hear commplaints against sheriffs
great council should meet 3 times a year
-henry agrees and is relieved by the pope
also know as great council
-discuss taxes
Barons war
Henry wins and dies soon after
-oldest son is Edward I
Edward I
-rules differnetly from his father Henry III
-takes advice for 20 years
-obeys magna carta and other charters without asking the pope to get out of it
-effective king
-calls parliament to raise money
Common classes and Edward I
-asks that sheriff send two members
-biggest cities also send two reps
-London sends 4
-Called the commons
-could grant taxes
-inferior to barons
House of Commons
-ment in westminsiter in st. Stephans chapel
-barons in westmister abby in chapter house
-didnt sit together
-spekaer walked across street to tell decsions
-commoners are there for money
-must make law with commons because people begin to believe that they are the ones who decide taxes
statue law
-making something new or a change in something old
Edward I
-makes new laws with approval of congress
Quo warranto
1290: checks growth of private fanchises
Quia Emptores
controls subinfeudation
Statues of westminster and, gloucester, and westminsterII
to remedy violations of law
Edwards Big mistake
-wanted to conquer wales, scotland and some land in france
-barons said no to taxation
-military tactics were bad
-begins to try to collect taxes not in parliament
-confirms charters again several times
Parliaments responisbilities
-taxes (house of commons)
-peasants have nothing to do with it
-vote for who represents them in parliament centuries later
-divide into two: Commons and Lords
-asks for advice (usually on war)
-petitions form around westminster during meeting times
-by the death of Edward its difficult to rule without a parliament
-king gets more money than he would get on his own
-individual power reduced
What charters came under Edward I
-confirmation of charters
-manga carta
-charter of forrest
Edward III's reign
Richard II's reign
Edward II's personality
-too much responsibility to lover from ireland
-made to swear things at his coronation
-doesnt pay attention to them
-barons on verge of antoher rebellion
Ordances of 1311
-given to Edward II: should put on his council the lead barons, unenforcable however
-when king is gone the barons can advise, king is gone alot
-England goes to civil war
Murder of Edward II
-no one likes him
-his mother makes up story that he disappears
most important development of 14th century
-development of parliament
-abdication approved in parliament (Edward II)
Attributes of Edward III
-tall, handsome, fights
-begins 100 years war
what king began the 100 years war?
Edward III
Hundred Years war
-english do well in the first part
-win english channel
-win in field north of france
-kings of france retreat and come back a few years later
gives up other types of control because need taxes
-gives some control to council
Date of beginning of 100 Years war
who helps Edward III rule while he is away?
Archbishop of Canterbury
Edward III's taxing
-wants parliament to tax wool because most important commodity
-commons says no
-they agree if he wont ask form money outside of the parliament again and he agrees
-edward doesnt get as much money as he thinks he would
Edward III vs. Archbishop of Canterbury
-throws archbishop in tower of london with other council members
-archbishop wrties letters for those in churchs to be read
-says king is behaving badly because he is listening to bad people
-people say bad things happen to bad kings (referring to Edward II)
-edward reconciles after threat
-never tries to raise money outside of parliametn again
-people no longer pay if its outside of parliament
-king controlled by parliament
John o Gaunt's relation to the throne
Edward III's son, uncle of Richard II, most powerful person in england during Edwrd III's last year and Richard's reign; father of Henry IV who took over after Richard II
John o guant's popularity
-not popular
-house of commons sends someone to investigate corruption in his governing
-impeach two of John o gaunts allies and convict them
Doctrine of the peers
-parliament begins to talk of themselves as "peers of the realm"- social equals
-petition pepers as well as teh king
-people ask commons, commons present it to the king
-people stop paying taxes until Edward III fixes a problem
created in last dcarde of Edward III's reign
-Edward senile
-John o Gaunt ruled (his son)
-has 5 princes (problem)
merciliess parliament 1388
-Edward III dies
-Richard II (grandson) takes over)
-Richard uses impeachment to remove barons who were against john o gaun and anti richard
-brings england to brink of civil war
-unrest with peasants
-killed and shakespeare writes about it
1327 House of Commons rights
-pass taxes
-needed because cant be passed unless they are present
Justices of peace
quarter sessions (replace royal justices who circulate though kindom on eyre; gradually dipslce shire court headed by the sheriff)
Justice of the peace's job
-commissioned the peace
-met 4 times a year
-eventaully sheriff's courts are called by knights
-dont get paid, wealthy, so just adds to prestige
-ovetime this become unwritten constitution in which local governemtn is taken over by knight in turn for which government oesn do anything that they are absolutly against (so dont get paid)
large landownders
-no longer have to work
-eventually you can work iwth your mind but not with hands
-basis of local government
-no paid beauracracy
-no police force
-no standing army
-still best government
-can raise money, courts work and understand they need stability
dont work with their hands
Coronation oath 1308
-forces king in upholding the laws
Battle of Hastings; norman conqust of England
who was a subject in Christopher marlows play?
Edward II
who was a subject of Shakespeare's great history play
richard II
Dates of High middle ages
who were the dynasties in the high middle ages in england?
Dates of late middle ages
who were the dynasties in the late middle ages
what two dynasties do the plantagenents divide into?
what century do the plantagenents divide in
15th century
what are the dates of the early modern period?
who were the dynasties in the early modern period
tudors and stuarts
in what century was there a huge agricultural depression?
14th century
Agricultural Depression of the 14th Century
-agriculture expands because population increases
-cant produce more so move to less fertile land
-lots of hunger and fall in standard of living
-1316: crisis because of bad weather
-too much rain in all of europe
-cattle and sheep die
-taxing heavily
-malnutrition and starvation increase
-instances of cannabalism?
-bad for about 5 years
-population doesnt get better when everything else does
-population continues to decline
-prices fall because demand falls
-contrancting economy as those from eastern germany and poland move to areas that were not usable before
subsitence farming
-peasants increase this practice during agricultural depression
-only produce enough to survive
Land competition of Agricultural depression
-still competition for land even though population is decreasing
-no excess money coming in from peasants - bad for landlords
-landlords cant collect any excess wheat
-lease out land
what do landlords do to combat Agricultural depression
-lease out their land, begin to take payments from peasants instead of making them work for them
-land becomes waste
Black death date
Black plague starts
-in constantinople and Italy
-flees on rats on ships
-1/3 of english population dies
-some coummunities even worse
-monastaries suffer
last bubonic plague in england
effects of bubonic plague
-prices increase because no on to work in the fields
-food prices drop beause less people and more land
-rents stay high
-peasants start buying land
-serfs in short supply
-balance of power shifts
effects on serfs of bubonic plague
-serfs wont pay certain rents
-commute labor service
-pretend they are free becuase grandparents were
-pay rent, argue about how much
when do peasants begin to bring cases to kings courts
Court of Chancery 1439
allow serfs to bring their cases to kings courts
effects of bubonic plague on landlords
-lease more land
-begin to farm themselves
-few work land at all
-live on rent
-try to set maximum wages for serfs
-not effective
-landlords pay as much as they need for the work
rentir class
-land lords after black plague
-live on rent
bubonic plagues effect on monastaires
-doest spare priesta nd monks
-causes questioning
-priests start asking for more money becuase they need to survive
Bubonic plague on 100 years war
-not winning anymore
-implement poll tax
poll tax
everyone must pay
-added because they were losing
-originally given in graduated amounts whether rich or poor
-head tax this time (after bubonic plague)- peasants paid same as novility
-peasants angry
-think serfs should be free
-think maximum rents should be set
Peasant revolt of 1381 (two groups)
-two groups of revolts
1. Essex
essex's peasant revolt demands
-all of kents plus
-no lordship
-all estates of the church confiscated and dived among the peasants
-abolish all bishiop except one
-shows the hostility of the peastry to the church
Kents peasant revolt demands
-(south east london)
-government shoud be turned voer to them beause the war is going so bad, government is in the hands of traitors
-all serfodom should be abolished
-all land shoudl be rented for same rent and the government shoulds et it at a max of 4 pence an acre
wat taylor meeting
-leader of peasant revolt
-to negotiate
-has dagger in his hand so someone kills to save the king
-massacres peasants
-all those thought to be involved were killed
-terror in peasants
-peasants didnt get anything they wanted
-no more revolts for 200 years beause of the severity of the suppression
reasons for lollardy
dutch word: insulting discription of religious people
-people were being tried for hersy in church
-if they were guilty they must recant
-if didnt would be burned alive
where did lollardy begin
who was the leader of lollardy
John whycliff
ideas behind lollardy
-church too concerned with worldly power
-belived that chruch and pope may not be destined for heaven
-should look to scripture, especilally at the Gospels, not hte pope to provide a model
why is whycliff so important
-he translated the Bible from latin into Enlish
-thouht it should be translated everywhere
-thinks those who are chosen act like Christ and his apostles
lollardy outlawed
-becomes undergound church
-people who can read english read to others
-government bans and burns english bibles
miricle of mass
-bread becomes the body of Christ and win become the blood during mass
-only person who can preform the mass is the priest
-mass is reinactment of Calvary
-salvation needs mass
-whycliff says no basis for transubstatiation in the bible and that priests are getting all of their power from this
whycliff's views on what the church should do
1. priest should marry
2. translate bible, make copies, send to preach Christianity the way he understands it
3. convicted of 24 heretical beliefs
- would have been burned but John o guant was a good friend and saved him
-died in 1384
who were usually most apt to follow lolardy?
townsmen and women
-woolmaking areas
-this philosohpy continues through Henry VIII's time
wrong belief in church that has the pwoer to enforce its definition of what is true