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34 Cards in this Set

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Classical Trivium
Study of logic, rhetoric, and grammar; Latin for "place where three roads meet"
Logic
Ordering principle of the universe; study of patterns found in reasoning
Rhetoric
Faculty of observing, in any given situation, the available means of persuasion
Grammar
Rules of language
Induction
Reasoning based on evidence or examples
Deduction
Conclusion based on premise or hypothesis
Tone
Voice
Dramatic Situation
Audience and speaker
Irony
A discrepancy between what is expected and what actually occurs, either in language or circumstances
Verbal Irony
Irony of language
Situational Irony
Irony of circumstances
Socratic Irony
Pretended ignorance as a means of leading on and defeating one's opponent
Dramatic Irony
The words or actions of a literary character carry meaning that the audience percieves but the character does not
Tragic Irony
Sense of the universe's crulty and indifference
Bias
A slant, preference, perspective, prejudice
Thesis
Statement (sometimes several sentences) that clearly identifies the topic of a paper and presents a claim. Often placed near the end of an intro, a thesis explains the idea in a paper and shows readers the direction the essay will take. A thesis has 2 basic parts and an optional third part.
Part 1 of a thesis
Identifies a specific and narrow topic of a paper
Part 2 of a thesis
Makes a clear claim about the topic
Part 3 of a thesis (optional)
A thesis sometimes includes a qualification, a phrase or clause pointing out some inconsistency or apparent contradiction. If the opinion is positive, the qualification is often negative and vice versa
Antithesis
Opposite
Connotation
Associations picked up over time
Denotation
Official meaning
Mutually Exclusive
Cannot be more than one thing at once
Collectively Exhaustive
All possible categories are named and defined
Hasty Generalization
Drawing a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence
Faulty Use of Authority
The attempt to bolster dubious claims by citing the opinion of "experts" without acknowledging other "experts" who disagree
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
"After this, therefore, because of this." Arguing that because one event follows another event, the first event must be the cause of the second
False Analogy
Using an analogy between two things as proof of a connection between those two things
False Dilema
Oversimplifying a complex problem by implying that only two alternatives exist
Argument Ad Hominem
"Against the Man" Attempt to discredit an argument by attacking the person making it rather than the argument itself
Argument Ad Populum
"To the People." Attempt to prove an argument is true by appealing to popular prejudices
Begging the Question
The arguer makes a statement that assumes that the very question being argued has already been proved
Non Sequitur
"It does not follow." A stated or implied link between unrelated matters
Slippery Slope
The unsupported claim that a first step will inevitably lead to a second, undesirable step