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200 Cards in this Set

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As an adjective describing style, this word means dry and theoretical writing. When a piece of writing seems to be sucking all the life out of its subject with analysis, the writing is this.
Aesthetic, Aesthetics
Can be used as an adjective meaning "appealing to the senses". This judgement is a phrase synonymous with artistic judgement. As a noun it is a coherent sense of taste. A kid who has gothic EVERYTHING has an _____ but somebody who likes kittens and knives has a confused _________. ________is the study of beauty.
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to literal meaning. The _________ical usually deals with moral truth or a generalization about human existence. It is a story in which each aspect of the story has a symbolic meaning outside the tale itself.
The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words. The repetition can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, and/or supply a musical sound.
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work or art. They can be historical, literary, religious, or mythical. A work may simultaneously use multiple layers of _______. They can be topical or popular as well.
Misplaced in time
A short narrative
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or phrase.
A comparison or similarity between two different things or the relationship between them. It can explan something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity with something more familiar. They can also make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.
When inanimate objects are given human characteristics. It is often confused with personification but personification requires that it takes on a human shape. "The darkness waited for me".
When an action produces far smaller results than one had been led to expect. It is frequently comic.
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun. Look for this in long complex sentences or in a group of sentences.
A terse statement of known authorship which expreses a general truth or moral principle. A short and usually witty saying. If the author is unknown then it is a folk proverb. It can be a memorable summation of the author's point, "A classic? That's a book that people praise and don't read."
The use of deliberately old-fashioned language. Authors sometimes use this to create a feeling of antiquity.
The repeated use of vowel sounds, as in "Old King Cole was a merry old soul"
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. "Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour."
ad hominem arguement
From the Latin meaning "to or against the man," this is an arguement that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect.
A speech (usually just a short comment) made by an actor to the audience, as though momentarily stepping outside of the action on stage.
The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established party by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are descrived. Even such elements as the description of the weather can contribute to this device. It often foreshadows events. (Emotional tone of background that surrounds a scene).
A writer's intellectual position or emotion regarding the subject of the writing. A passage will rarely only have one ______ and so be able to present this complexity. An accurate statement of an author's _______ is not likely to be a blatantly obvious idea. Explain how language expresses an ________.
A long, narrative poem, usually in very regular meter and rhyme. A ballad typically has a naive folksy quality, a characteristic that distinguishes it from epic poetry.
Bathos, Pathos
When the writing of a scene evokes feelings of dignified pity and sympathy then it is pathos. When it strains for grandeur it can't support and tries to jerk tears from every little hiccup, it is bathos.
A protagonist (main character) who is markedly unheroic: morally weak, cowardly, dishonest, or any number of other unsavory qualities.
the use of deliberately harsh, awkard sounds.
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. An independent, or main, ______ expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. A dependent or subordinate ______ cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent ______.
the use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, it gives work a conversational, familiar tone. These expressions in wiritn include local or regional dialects. These are words and phrases used in everyday english that isnt "school-book" english.
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or suprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar obects. This displays intellectual cleverness due to the unusual comparison being made. When it dominates and shapes the entire work is it called a metaphysical ______ or a controlling image.
The nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. They may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes. Like "dark forest" is a _______ of danger.
The repetition of consonant sounds within words (rather than at their beginnings). A flock of sick, black-checkered, ducks.
The beat or rhythm of poetry in a general sense.
A portrait (verbal or otherwise) that exaggerates a facet of personality.
The "cleansing" of emotion an audience member experiences, having lived (vicariously) through the experiences presented on stage.
Group of citizens who stand outside the main action on stage and comment on it.
It can mean typical or an accepted masterpiece. It can also refer to the arts of ancient Greece and Rome and the qualities of those arts.
Or Neologism, it is a new word, usually one invented on the spot.
A pair of lines that end in rhyme.
The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color.
The way a characters speech is styled according to their social sation and in accordance with the occaion. ( A bum speaks like a bum about bumly things)
Related to style, it refers to the writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness. It can be formal or informal, ornate of plain, and understand how it complements the writer's purpose. Combined with syntax, figurative language, literary devices, etc, it creates an author's style. It can also be stark, flowery etc. (always use an adjective).
A song for the dead, its tone is typically slow, heavy, depressed, and melancholy.
This refers to the grating of incompatible sounds.
Crude, simplistic verse, often in sing-song rhyme. Limericks are a kind of this.
From the Greek, it literally means "teaching." _______ works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
A type of poem that meditates on death or mortality in a serious, thoughtful manner. It often used the recent death of a noted person or loved one as a starting point.
A very long narrative poem on a serioustheme in a dignified style. A mock-____ is a parody form that deals with mundane things and ironically treats them as worhty of ____ poetry.
From the Grek for "good speech", they are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts. It can be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness, or to add humor or ironic understatement. Saying "earthly remainds" rather than "corpse" is an example of this.
Lines that commemorate the dead at their burial place. It is usually a line or a handful of lines, often serious or relgious, but sometimes witty and even irreverent.
When sounds blend harmoniously, the result is ________.
Extended Metaphor
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
Now it refers to extremely broad humor, while earlier it was a neutral term meaning a funny play or a comedy. (A real comedy that did imply humor)
A secondary character whose purpose is to highlight the characteristics of a main character, usually by contrast.
The basic rhythmic unit of a line of poetry. It is formed by a combination of two or three syllables, either stressed or unstressed.
Figurative Language
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meanign and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
Figure of Speech
A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. They include apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonomy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.
Free verse
Poetry written without a regular rhyme scheme or metrical pattern.
Generic Conventions
This term describes traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre; for example, they differentiate between an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and political writing. Try to distinguish the unique features of a writer's work from those dictated by convention.
The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama. However, genre is a flexible term and within this broad boundaries exist many subdivisions that are often called genres themselves. Prose can be divided into fiction and nonfiction, poetry can be lyric, dramatic, narrative, epic, and drama can be tragedy, comedy, melodrama, or farce.
Gothic/ Gothic Novel
first showed up in middle of the 18th century, style of fiction that emphasizes the grotesque, mysterious, and desolate.
The excessive pride or ambition that leads to the main character's downfall (part of a tragedy)
This term literally means "sermon," but more informally it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration of overstatement. They often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possiuble. Often, it also produces irony at the same time.
In Medias Res
Latin for "in the midst of things." One of the conventions of epic poetry is that the action begins __________. (So like when the Illiad begins, the Trojan war has already been going on for seven years)
Interior Monologue
A term for novels and poetry and not dramatic literature, it refers to writing that records the mental talking that goes on inside a character's head. It is related, but not identical to stream of conciousness. It tends to be coherent as though the character were actually talking. Stream of conciousness is looser and much more given to fleeting mental impressions.
Switching the customary order of elements in a sentence or phrase. When done badly it can give a stilted, artificial, look-at-me-I'm-poetry feel to the verse, but poets do it all the time. "A pizza large I'll have, one with fixin's all." It gives the author "poetic license."
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, it uses terms related to the five senses, we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory imagery. On a broader and deeper level, however, one image can represent more than one thing . Complex imagery employs other figures of speech, especially metaphor and simile. It can also apply to the total of all the images in a work. How does the author create images and what is the effect?
To draw reasonable conclusion from the information presented. When a multiple-choice question asks for an ______to be drawn from the passage, the most direct, most reasonable one is the safest choice. If the answer choice is directly stated, it is NOT inferred and it is wrong.
An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
Gustatory Imagery
Appealing to taste
Tactile Imagery
Appealing to touch
The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. In general, there are three major types of irony used in language. A statement that means opposite of what it seems to mean with an udertow of meaning, sliding against the literal meaning of the words. (Jane Austen does it a lot). "But he is an honorable man"
Verbal Irony
The words literally state the opposite of the writer's or speaker's true meaning
Situational Irony
Events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen.
Dramatic Irony
Facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work. it is used for many reasons, but frequently, it's used to create poignancy or humor.
A poem of sadness or grief over the death of a loved one or over some other intense loss. A lampoon of laments can be a satire.
Loose Sentence
This sentence is complete before its end. A type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) caomes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. If a period were placed at the end of the independent clause, it would be a complete sentence. A work containing many loose sentences often seems informal, relaxed, and conversational. "Jack loved Barbara despite her irritating snorting laugh, her complaining, and her terrible taste in shoes."
Periodic Sentence
This is a sentence not gramatically complete until it has reached its final phase. A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect of a periodic sentence is to add emphasis and structural variety. "Depite Barbara's irriation at Jack's peculiar habit of pickign between his toes while watching MTV and his terrible haircut, she loved him.
When this word is used to describe a tone it refers to a sweet, emotional melodiousness. Otherwise, it is a type of poetry that explores the poet's personal interpretation of and feelings about the world or the part that his poem is about.
A form of cheesy theater in which the hero is very, very good, the villian mean and rotten, and teh heroine oh-so-pure.
A figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity. _______ical language makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought provoking, and meaningful. It's a comparison or analogy that states one thing is another. "In the morning, the lake is covered in liquid gold."
An explicit comparison, normally using "like, as, or if". It is just like a metaphor but softens the full-out equation of things. "In the morning the lake is covered in what seems to be liquid gold."
A term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name," it is a figure of speech which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. A news release that claimes "the White House declared" rather than "the President declared" is using metonomy.
The protagonist's arch enemy or supreme and persistent difficulty.
This term has two distinct technical meanings in English Writing. Te first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The second meaning is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere of emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the mood. In this usage, mood is similar to tone and atmosphere.
Indicative Mood
Used only for factual sentences, for example "Joe eats too quickly"
Subjunctive Mood
Used only for a doubtful or conditional attitude, for example, "If I were you, I'd get another job."
Imperative mood
Used for commands, for example, "Shut the Door!"
The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.
An _______ treatment of subject matter is an impersonal or outside view of events.
A _______ treatment uses the interior or personal view of a single observor and is typically colored with that observor's emotional responses.
A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and mumor. Note the effect of this figure of speech in essays.
From the Greek for "pointedly foolish", it is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox. A phrase composed of opposites, a contradiction. "Jumbo Shrimp".
Like a fable, or an allegory, it is a story that instructs.
Parenthetical Phrase
A phrase set off by commas that interrupts the flow of a sentence with some commentary of added detail. "Jack's three dogs, including that miserable, yallping little spaniel, were with him that day."
The work that results when a specific work is exaggerated to ridiculousness. A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic relief and/or rdicule. As comedy, it distorts or exaggerates distinctive features of the orginal. As ridicule, it mimics the work by repeating and borrowing words, phrases, or characteristics in order to illuminate weaknesses in the original. Well-written _____ offers enlightenment about the orignial, but poorly written ____ only offiers ineffectual imitation. Usually an audience must grasp literary allusion and understand the work being parodied in order to fully appreciate the nuances of the newer work. Occasionally, however, parodies take on a life of their own and don't require knowledge of the original.
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. Like in Macbeth in the end when the witch says, "Fair is foul, and foul is fair...."
Also referred to as parallel constuction or stucture, it comes from Greek roots meaning "beside one another." It refers to the grammatical framing of words, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. This can involve the repetition of a grammatical element such as a preposition or verbal phrase. "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom....". The effects are numerous but frequently it acts as an organizing force to attract the reader's attention, add emphasis and organization, or simply provide musical rhythm. "I came, I saw, I conquered."
A work set in tranquil nature or even more specifially, one about sheperds.
Black Humor
The use of disturbing themes in comedy.
This is pretentious, exaggeratedly learned language. When one tries to be eloquent by using the largest, most uncommon words, one falls into ______.
a broad parody, one that takes a style or a form, such as tragic drama, and exaggerates it into riciculousness. Interchangeable with parody when it takes on a specific work.
The narrator in a non first-person novel. In a third person novel, even though the author isn't a character, you get some idea of the author's personality. However, it isn't really the authr's personality because the author is manipulating your impressions there as in other parts of the book. The shadow-author is called the author's ______.
An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.
A figure of specch in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by enodwing them with human attributes or emotions. It is used to make these abstractions, animales, or objects appear more vivd to the reader. When an inanimate object takes on human shape. Also called prosopopeia.
Point of View
In literature, the perspectve from which the story is told. There are two general divisions of point of view and many subdivisions within those.
First-Person Narrator
Type of point of view where he tells the story with the first-person pronoun, "I," and is a character in the story. This narrator can be the protagonist (the hero or heroine), a participant (a character in a secondary role), or an observer (a character who merely watches the action).
Third Person Narrator
Relates the events with third person pronouns, "he,""she," and "it." There are two main subdivisions.
Omniscient and Limited Omniscient
Type of third person point of view. The omniscient narrator has godlike knowledge and presents the thoughts and actions of any or all characters. This all knowing character can reveal what each chracter thinks and feels at any given moment. The limited one presents the feelings and thoughts of only ONE chracter and presents only the actions of all remaining characters. When asked to analyze the author's point of view, address their attiude (in essays!)
A poem or speech expressing sorrow.
The objective or Camera eye narrator
A third person narrator who only reports on what would be visible to a camera. He doesnot know what the character is thinking unless the character speaks of it.
Unreliable First Person Narrator
When the narrator is crazy, a liar, very young, or for some reason not entirely credible
Stream of Conciousness Technique
This method is like first person narration but instead of the character telling the story, the author places the reader inside the main character's head and makes the reader privy to all the character's thoughts as they scroll through her conciousness.
An introductory poem to a longer work of verse.
The main character of a novel or play.
A song of prayer for the dead.
An intensely passionate verse or section of verse, usuall of love or praise.
Predicate Adjectives
One type of subject complement-- an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb, and modifies or descrives the subject. For example, in "My boyfriend is tall, dark, and handome," the gruop of predicate adjectives (tall dark handsome) describes "boyfriend".
Predicate Nominative
A second type of subject complement-- a noun, group of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject. It, like the predicate adjective, follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence. In the sentence "Abe Lincoln was a man of integrity," the _________ is "man of integrity" as it renames Abe Lincoln.
One of the major divisions of genre, prose refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all of its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everyday speech. Tenchincally, anything that isn't poetry or drama is prose. Prose writers often borrow poetic and dramatic elements.
A line or set of lines repeated several times over the course of a poem, a repeated utterance or theme.
The duplication, either exact or approximate, or any element of language, such as a sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern. When it is poorly done, it bores, but when it's well done, it links and emphasizes ideas while allowing the reader the comfort of recognizing something familiar.
From the Greek for "orator" this term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
Rhetorical Modes
This flexible term describes the variety, the convemtopms, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. There are four common rhetorical modes (Exposition, argumentation, description, and narration).
Exposistion or Expository Writing
Rhetorical mode with the purpose of explaining and analyzing information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
Argumentation/ Persuasive
Rhetortical mode with the purpose of proving the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. Persuasive writing is a type of agumentaion having the additional aim of urging some form of action.
Rhetorical Mode with the purpose of re-creating, inventing, or visually presenting a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses in description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque. Descriptive mayve be straightforward and objective or highly emotional and subjective.
Type of rhetorical mode where the purpose is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. This writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
Modes of Discourse
The four rhetorical modes.
Rhetorical Question
A question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply. The answer is assumed. It suggests an answer. The effect of it is that it causes the reader to feel as if she has come up with the answer herself.
From the Greek meaning "to tear flesh," sacrasm involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. it may use irony as a device, but not all ironic statements are sarcastic, that is, intending to ridicule. When well done, it can be witty and insightful; when poorly done, it's simply cruel.
A work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule. Regardless of whether or not the work aims to reform humans or their society, satire is best seen as a style of writing rather than writing for a purpose for writing. It can be recognized by the many devices used effectively by the satirist, such as irony, wit, parody, caricature, hyperbole, understatement, and sarcasm. The effects are varied, depending on the writer's goal, but good satire-often humorous- is thought provoking and insightful about the human condition. Subjects include hypocrisy, greed, and vanity. It seeks to improve things by pointing out people's mistakes.
The consideration of style has two purposes. The first is an evaluation of the sum of the hoices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices. Some authors' styles are so idiosyncratic that we can quickly recognize works by the same author (or writer emulating that writer's syle). We can analyze and describe an author's personal style and make judgements on how appropriate it is to the author's purpose. Styles can be called flowery, explicit, succinct, rambling, bombastic, commonplace, incisive, or laconic. It also serves to classify authors to a group and campare them to similar authors. By doing this, one can see how an author's style reflects and helps to define a historical period, such as the Renaissance, or the Victorian period, or a literary movement such as the romantic, transcendental, or realist movement.
A speech spoken by a character alone on stage. It is meant to convey the impression that the audience is listening to the character's thoughts. Unlike an asie, a soliloquy is not meant to imply that the actor acknowledges the audience's presence.
Stock Characters
Standard or cliched character types: the drunk, the miser, the foolish girl, etc.
Suspension of Disbelief
The demand of the reader to accept the limiatations of staging and supply the details with their imagination. The acceptance of the reader's part of the incidents of plot in a story. ifthere are too many coincidences or improbable orrurences, the reader can no longer suspend disbelief and subsequently loses interest.
Subject Complement
The word (with any accompanying phrases) or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, or complets the subect of the sentence by either (1) renaming it or (2) describing it. The fomrer is techincally called a predicate nominative, teh latter a predicate adjective.
Subordinate Clause
Like all clauses, this word group contains both a subject and a verb (plus any accompanying pharases or modifiers), but unlike the independent clause, the ______ cannot stand alone; it does not express a complete thought. Also called a dependent clause, it depends on a main/independent clause to complete its meaning. Easily recognized key words and phrases usually begin these clauses- for example: althought, because, unless, if, even though, since, a soon as, while, who, when, where, how, and that.
Syllogism/ Syllogistic Reasoning
From the Greek for "reckoning together", is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises- the first one called "major" and the second "minor"- that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion. For example (Major Premise- All men are mortal, Minor Premise- Socrates is a man, Conclusion- Therefore, Socrates is a mortal). A syllogism's conclusion is valid only if each of the two premises is valid. Syllogisms may also present the specific idea (Socrates) first and the general idea (All men) second.
Generally, anything that represents or stands for something else. Usually, it is something concrete- such as an object, action, character, or scene- that represents something mroe abstract. However, symbols and symbolism can be much more complex. They can be Natural, Conventional, or Literary.
Natural Symbols
These use objects and occurences from nature to represent ideas commonly associated with them (dawn symbolizing hope or a new beginning, a rose symbolizing love, a tree symbolizing knowledge).
Conventional Symbols
These have been invested with meaning by a group (religious symbols such as a cross or Star of David; national subols, such as a flag or an eagle; or group symbols, such as skull and crossbones for pirates or the scales of justice for lawyers).
Literary Symbols
These are sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are foun din a variety of works and are generally recognized. However, a work's symbols may be more complicated as is the whale in Moby Dick and the jungle in Heart of Darkness. Try to determine what abstraction an object is a symbol for and to what extent it is successful in representing that abstraction.
The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. It is similar to diction but you can differentiate the two by thinking of this as groups of words while diction is referring to individual words. Analyze how it produces effects with the length or brevity of sentences, unusual sentence constructions, sentence patterns ued, and the kinds the author sues. The writer may use questions, declarations, exclamations, or rhetorical questions; sentences are also classified as periodic or loose, simple, compound, or complex. First analyze what kind of sentence it is and then why it works well for the author's purpose. (How does it amplify the meaning).
The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life. Usugally, theme is unstated in fictional works, but in nonfiction, the theme may be directly stated, expecially in expository or agurmentative writing.
In expository writing, the thesis statement is the sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition. Expository writing is usually judged by analyzing how accurately, effectively, and thoroughly a writer has proven the thesis. Main posistion of an arguement, the central conetion that will be supported.
A grotesque parody
An idealized place. Imaginary communities in which peopl eare able to live in happiness, prosperity, and peace. Several works of fiction have been written about utopias.
Similar to mood, it describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both. It is easier to determine in spoken language than in written language. Considering how a work would sound if it were read aloud can help in identifying the author's tone. Some words describing tone are playful, serious, businesslike, sarcastic, humorous, formal, ornate, and somber. As with attirude, an author's tone in the exm's passages can rarely be described by one word. Expect that it will be more complex.
A word or phrase that links different ideas. Used especially, although not exclusively, in expository and argumentative writing, they effectively signal a shift from one idea to another. A few commonly used transitional words or phrases are furthermore, consequently, nevertheless, for example, in addition, likewise, similarly, and on the contrary.
The ironic minimalizing of fact, it presents something as less significant thatn it is. The effect can frequently be humourous and emphatic. It is the opposite of hyperbole.
In modern usage, it is intellectually amusing language that suprises and delights. A witty statement is hurmous, while suggeesting the speaker's verbal powers in creating ingenious and perceptive remarks. Wit usually uses terse language that makes a pointed statement. Historically, wit originally meant basic understanding. its meaning evolved to include speed of understanding, and finally (in the early 17th century), it grew to mean quick perception including creative fancy.
Concrete Detail
Strictly defined, this refers to nouns that name physical objects-- a bridge, a book, or a coat. Concrete nouns are the opposite of abstract nouns which refer to concepts like fredom and love. When the essay aks for you to provide concrete detail this means you should include detail in the passage; at times you'll be asked to procide details from your own life (reading, observation, experience, and so forth).
Descriptive Detail
When an essay uses this phrase, look for the writer's sensory description. Descriptive detail appleaing to the visual sense is usally the most predominant but don't overlook other sensory detail. As usual, after you adentify a passage's descriptive detail, analyze its effect.
The figures of speech, syntax, diction, and otehr stylistic elements that collectively produce a particular artistic effect.
When you're asked to "analyze the language," concentrate on how the elements of language combine to form a whole- how diction, syntax, figurative language, and sentence structure create a cumulative event.
Narrative Devices
This term descrives the tools of the storyteller (also used in nonfiction), such as ordering events so that they build to a climatic moment or withholding information until a crucial or appropriate moment when revealing it creates a desired effect. This may also apply to biographical and autobiographical writing.
Narrative Technique
The style of telling the "story" even if the passage is nonfiction. Concentrate on the order of events and on their detail in evaluating a writer's technique.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Essay
When asked to write a persuasive essay, you should present a coherent argument in which the evidence builds to a logical and relevant conclusion. Strong persuasive essays often appeal to the audience's emotions or ethical standards.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Essay
When asked to write a persuasive essay, you should present a coherent argument in which the evidence builds to a logical and relevant conclusion. Strong persuasive essays often appeal to the audience's emotions or ethical standards.
Persuasive Essay
When asked to write a persuasive essay, you should present a coherent argument in which the evidence builds to a logical and relevant conclusion. Strong persuasive essays often appeal to the audience's emotions or ethical standards.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Devices
When asked to analyze an author's persuasive devices, look for the words in the passage that have strong connotations- words that intensify the emotional effect. In addition, analyze HOW these words complement the writer's arguement as it builds logically. Speeches are often used in this context, since they are generally designed to persuade.
Persuasive Essay
When asked to write a persuasive essay, you should present a cohrent arguement in which the evident cuilds to a logical and relevan conclusion. Strong persuasive essays often appeal to the audience's emotions or ethical standards.
Resources of Language
This phrase refers to all the devices of composition available to a writer, such as diction, syntax, sentence structure, and figures of speech. The cumulative effect of a work is produced by the resources of language a writer chooses.
Rhetorical Features
This phrase refers to how a passage is constructed. If asked to consider this, look at the passage's organization and how the writer combines images, details, or arguements to serve his or her purpose.
Sentence Structure
When an essay question asks you to anayze sentence structure, look at the types of sentences the author uses. Remember that basic sentence structures are simple, compound, and complex, and variations created with sentence combining. Also consider variation or lack of it in sentence length, any unusual devices in sentence construction, such as repetition or inverted word order, and any unusual word or phrase placement. As with all devices, be prepared to discuss the effect of the sentence structure. For example, a series of short, simple sentences or phrases can produce a feeling of speed and choppiness, which may suit the author's purpose.
Stylistic Devices
An essay that mentions stylistic devices is asking you to note and analyze all the elements in language that contribute to style- such as diction, syntax, tone, attitude, figures of speech, connotations, and repetition.
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetiion and helps make the writer's point more coherent.
A balancing of two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses
Commas used, with no conjnction, to separate a series or words. The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is omitted and it speeds up the flow of teh sentence.
Arguements that draw on recognized experts or persons with highly relevant experience are said to rest on authoritative backing or authority. Readers are expected to accept claims if they are in agreement with an authority's view.
Construction in which both halves of a sentence are about the same length and importance.
Begging the Question
Often called circular resoning, it occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim.
Causal Relationships
When a writer asserts that one thing results from another. To show how one thing produces or brings about another is often relevant in establishing a logical argument.
Arrangement of repeated thoughts ni teh pattern of XYYX. It is often short and summarizes a main idea.
Common Knowledge
Shared beliefs or assumptions are often called common knowledge. A writer may argue that if something is widely believed, then readers should accept it.
A crtiical approach that debunks single definitions of meaning based on the instability of language. The deconstructionist re-examins literary conventions in light of a belief that deconstruction is not a dismantling of the sturcture of a text but a demonstration that it was already dismantled itself.
Either-Or Reasoning
When the writer reduced an arguement or issue to two polar opposites and ignores any alternatives.
Sentence structure which leaves out something in the second half. Usually there is a S-V-O combo in the first half and then 2nd half replaces the verb with a comma
A quotation or aphorism at the beginning of a literary work suggestive of theme.
Sentence consisting of three or more very short independent clauses joined by conjunctions.
Latin for "it does not follow". When one statement is not logically connected to another.
Sentence that begins by stating what is not true then ending by stating what is true.
When a writer obscures or denies the complexity of issues in an arguement.
Sentence which uses AND or another conjunction with no commas to seperate the items in a series. It stressesthe equality of each member of the series while slowing down teh sentence and making the items more emphatic than in the asyndeton.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
Latin for "after this , therfore because of this", when a writer implies that because one thing follows another, the first caused the second.
Red Herring
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue.
When a writer musters relevant opposing arguement.
Taking on thing out of another, it is a device in which a part stands for the whole, or a whole for the part, like the expression "all hands on board" to signify that a ship's crew should return to the ship.
To place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
going off subject
Nonsensical, incoherent, or meaningless talk.
A light humorous, nonsensical, or bawdy verse of five anapestic lines usually with the rhyme scheme aabba.
The meaning or the interpretation of a word, sentence, or other language form