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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PARADIGM


ch.2
A theoretical framework.
THE THREE LAWS OF THOUGHT


ch.2
1. The law of noncontradiction ~ Nothing can both have a property & lack it at the same time.

2. The law of identity ~ Everything is identical to itself.

3. The law of the excluded middle ~ For any particular property, everything either has it or lacks it.
REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM


ch.2
An effective technique of refuting a position by reduction to absurdity.
THE FALLACY OF APPEAL TO IGNORANCE

ch.2
All a lack of evidence shows is our own ignorance; it doesn't provide a reason for believing anything.
A CLAIM'S TRUTH IS ESTABLISHED


ch.2
By the amount of evidence in its favor, not by the lack of evidence against it.
THE FALLACY OF COMPOSITION


ch.2
The false assumption that what is true of the parts is also true of the whole.
JUST BECAUSE SOMETHING IS PHYSICALLY POSSIBLE DOESN'T MEAN IT IS

ch.2
probable.
PERCEPTION IS


ch.3
constructive.
PERCEPTION IS DETERMINED NOT ONLY BY WHAT OUR EYES & EARS & OTHER SENSES DETECT, BUT ALSO BY

ch.3
a. What we know

b. What we expect

c. What we believe

d. What our physiological state is.
PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCIES ARE


ch.3
Our tendency to have certain perceptual experiences even in the absence of relevant input from our senses.
OUR MEMORIES ARE


ch.3
constructive & selective.
THE GAMBLER'S FALLACY ~


ch.3
The idea that previous events can affect the probabilities in a current random event.
SUBJECTIVE VALIDATION ~


ch.3
When people ignore facts that contradict their beliefs & look for those that confirm them.
SCIENCE IS A SYSTEMATIC ATTEMPT TO GET AOUND THE LIMITS OF PERSONAL EXPERIENCE BY:

ch.3
a. using objective measurements

b. insisting on the corroboration of findings

c. demanding public evidence open to public scrutiny

d. objective evidence
REALISTS ~


ch.4
Do not believe that reality depends on our thoughts about it.
RELATIVISTS ~


ch.4
Believe that the way the world is depends on what we think about it.
SUBJECTIVISM ~


ch.4
The belief that each of us creates our own reality.
FALLACY OF APPEAL TO THE MASSES ~

ch.4
A common but fallacious form of reasoning is "It must be true (or good) because everybody believes it (or does it)."
A CONCEPTUAL SCHEME ~


ch.4
a set of concepts for classifying objects.
THE MOST SERIOUS FLAW OF RELATIVISM IS

ch.4
a purely logical one. It is self-refuting because its truth implies its falsity.
A FACT IS


ch.5
a true proposition.
FOR PLATO, KNOWLEDGE IS


ch.5
true belief that is grounded in reality. What grounds our beliefs in reality are the reasons we have for them.
REASONS CONFER _________ ON PROPOSITIONS.

ch.5
probability
PHILOSOPHICAL SKEPTICISM IS


ch.5
the view that we can't know what isn't certain.
TO HAVE KNOWLEDGE, WE MUST HAVE ADEQUATE

ch.5
evidence, & our evidence is adequate when it puts the proposition in question beyond a reasonable doubt.
THE SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE INVOLVES ELIMINATING

ch.5
inconsistencies among our beliefs.
COMMONSENSE SKEPTICISM CONSIDERS

ch.5
everything that lacks adequate evidence suspect.
THE FALLACY OF APPEAL TO AUTHORITY IS WHEN

ch.5
we cite someone who is not an authority in the field in question.
TO BE CONSIDERED AN EXPERT, YOU MUST HAVE DEMONSTRATED

ch.5
an ability to correctly interpret data & arrive at conclusions that are justified by the evidence.
PERCEPTION ~


ch.5
a source of knowledge about the external world.
INTROSPECTION ~


ch.5
a source of knowledge about the external world.
REASON ~


ch.5
is the ability to discern the logical relationships between concepts & propositions.
FOUR TRADITIONAL SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE ARE:

ch.5
perception, intorspection, memory, & reason.
FAITH ~


ch.5
belief that does not rest on logical proof or material evidence.
CONFIRMATION BIAS ~


ch.6
The tendency to look for & recognize only evidence that confirms our own views.
THE AVAILABILITY ERROR OCCURS WHEN:

ch.6
people base their judgments on evidence that's vivid or memorable instead of reliable or turstworthy.
THE FALLACY OF HASTY GENERALIZATION ~

ch.6
Making a judgemnt about a group of things on the basis of evidence concerning only a few members of that group.
A SUPERSTITION IS:


ch.6
a belief that an action or situation can have an effect on something even though there is no logical relation between the two.
AN ARGUMENT IS:


ch.6
a group of statements that attempt to justify a claim.
THE CONCLUSION OF AN ARGUMENT ARE

ch.6
is the claim that the statements in an argument attempt to justify.
THE PREMISES OF AN ARGUMENT ARE

ch.6
the statements that supposedly justify the conclusion of an argument.
AN ENTHYMEME IS


ch.6
an argument with unstated premises or conclusions.
A VALID ARGUMENT IS SUCH THAT


ch.6
if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true.
DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS CAN ESTABLISH THEIR CONCLUSIONS WITH __________; BUT INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS CAN ONLY ESTABLISH THEIR CONCLUSION WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF ________.

ch.6
certainty;

probability.
THE MODUS PONENS DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT CAN BE REPRESENTED AS FOLLOWS:

ch.6
If p then q.

P

Therefore q.
THE MODUS TOLENS DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT CAN BE REPRESENTED AS FOLLOWS: (2nd one)

ch.6
If p then q.

Not q.

Threfore, not p.
A SOUND DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT IS WHEN

ch.6
the argument is valid & its premises are true.
AN INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT THAT WOULD ESTABLISH ITS CONCLUSION WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF PROBABILITY IF ITS PREMISES WERE TRUE IS KNOWN AS A _________ ARGUMENT.

ch.6
strong
A STRONG INDUCTIVE ARGUMENT WITH TRUE PREMISES IS KNOWN AS A _________ ARGUMENT.

ch.6
cogent
EMUNERATIVE INDUCTION HAS THE FOLLOWING FORM:

ch.6
X percent of the observed members of A are B.

Therefore, X percent of the entire group of A are B.
ANALOGICAL INDUCTION HAS THE FOLLOWING FORM:

ch.6
Object A has properties, F, G. H, etc. as well as the property Z.

Object B has properties F, G. H, etc.

Therefore, object B probably has property Z.
INFERENCE TO THE BEST EXPLANATION HAS THE FOLLOWING FORM:

ch.6
Phenomena p.

If hypothesis b were true, it would provide the best explanation for p.

Therefore, it's probably that b is true.