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59 Cards in this Set

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scheme
a scheme involves a deviation from the ordinary pattern or arrangement of words
parallelism
similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clases. Parallelism is one of the basic principles of grammer and rhetoric

ex.
Right: "...that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth" -Abraham Lincoln

Wrong: Teenagers who dance the frug or the jerk are either juvenile delinquents or wild. (needs a non after wild to be parallelism)
antithesis
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, orten in parallel structures.

ex.
"that's one small step for man, one giant leave for mankind." -neil armstrong
anastrophe
inversion of the natural or usual word order. anastrophe can be an effective device for gaining attention...(yoda)

ex.
"backward run the sentences, till reels the mind"
parenthesis
insertion of some verbal unit in a position that interupts the normal syntactical flow of the sentence. for a moment, we hear the author's coice, comenting, editorializing. parenthesis can be created by using parentheses, commas, or the dash.

ex.
he said he supervised ten editors--another euphemism-- in his department
apposition
placing side by side two co-ordinate elements, the second of which serves as an explaination or modiciation of the first. commas must be placed around both sides of the apposition.

ex.
hilary clinton, first lady of the united states, arrived at the conference
ellipsis
deliberate omission of a word or words which are readily implied by the context. ellipsis can be indicated by three ellises (2nd example) which are often used in quotes.

ex.
the master;s degree is awared by seventy-four departments, and the ph.d by sixty.

they rode off into the sunset...
alliteration
repetition of initial or medial consonants in two or more adjacent words. a wonderful device, but can be overused. in anglo-saxon poetry, alliteration rather than rhyme was a device to bind verses together

ex
a moist young moon hung above the mist of a neighboring

a murmering of innumerable bees
assonance
the repetition of the consonant especally at the end of words

ex
round and round the spicy downs the yellow lotos-dust is blown
consonance
repetition of the consonants especially at the ends of words

ex
the thick black ice cracked upon the dark lake
anaphora
repetition of the same word or grou of words at the beginnings of successive clases. one of the most powerful rhetorical devices

ex
let us march on segrated housing. let us march on segregated schools. let us march on poverty. let us march..." mlk
epistrophe
repitition of the same word or groups of words at the ends of the successive clauses

ex
as long as the white man sent you to korea, you bled. he sent you to germany, you bled. he sent you to the south pacific to fight the japanese, you bled" -malcolm x

perhaps this is the most important thing for me to take back from beach-living: simply the memort that each cycle of the tide is valid, each cycloe of the wave is valid, each cycle of a relationship is valid
epanalepsis
repitition at the end of a clause of the word that occure at the beginning of the clause. as corbett writes, "repetition, we know, is one of the characteristics of highly emotional language.

ex
blood hath bought blood, the blows have answer'd blows
climax
arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing importance.

ex
...life, liberty, and the persuite of happiness
antimetabole
repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse gramatical order

ex
ask not waht your county can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. -jfk

he was just the man for such a place, and it was just the place for such a man
chiasmus
reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses. (involves no repeition of words)

ex
it is hard to make money but to spend it is easy.
ballad stanza
a four-line stanza, the second and fourth line of which are iambic trimeter and rhyme with each other, the first and third lines, in iambic tetrameter, do not rhyme
blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
concrete poetry/shaped verse
an attempt to supplement (or replace) verbal meaning with visual devices from painting and sculpture
english or shakesearian sonnet
three four-line stanzas and a couplet (two lines) rhymed

ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
free verse
poetry that avoids regularized meter and has no significant recurrent stress rhythms, although it may use other repetitive patterns of words, phrases, or structures
heroic couplet
a pair of rhymed lines of iambic pentameter
italian or petrarchan sonnet
an octave (eight lines) and a sestet (six lines) typically rhymed with the below pattern, altho it has many variations that stil reflect the basic division into two parts

ABBAABBA CDECDE
limerick
two lines of rhymed trimeter, two lines of rhymed dimeter, and an additional line of trimeter, the last word of which is the same as, or rhymes with the last word of the first line
memory devices/mnemonic devices
forms, such as rhyme, bult into poems to help reciters remember them
sestina
six, six-line stanzas and a final three-line stanza, all unrhymed, but the final word in each line of the first stanza then becomes the final word in another stanza (tho in a different specific pattern). The final stanza uses these words again in a specified way, one in each half line
sonnet
a form, usualy only a single stanza, that offers several related possibilities for its rhyme scheme, but is always fourteen lines long and usually written in iambic pentameter (or tetrameter)
spenserian stanza
eight lines of iambic pentameter and a ninth line of iambic hexameter, called an alexandrine, rhymed:

ABABBCBCC
stanza
groups of lines with a specific cogency of their own and usually set off from one another by a space
syllabic verse
a form in which the poet establishes a precise number of syllables to a line and repeats them in subsequent stanzas
technopaegnia
the construction of poems with visual appeal
terza rima
the three-line stanza in which Dante wrote The Divine Comedy, each iambic pentameter stanza (aba) interlocks with the next through rhyme:

ABA BCB CDC DED etc
tetrameter couplet
a pair of rhymed four-beat lines
villanelle
contains five, three-line stnaza and a final four-line stanza, only two rhyme soudns are permitted in the entire poem, and the first and third line of each stanza are repeated, alternately as the third line of the subsequent stanzas until the last
meter
the means by which rhythm is measured and described
monometer
one foot
dimeter
two feet
trimeter
three feet
tetrameter
four feet
pentameter
five feet
hexameter
six feet (alexandrine)
heptameter
seven feet (rare)
stressed syllable
/
unstressed syllable
u
iambic foot
consists of an unstressed followed by a stressed syllable u /

ex
unITE, rePEAT, inSIST
trochaic foot
inserts this order, it is a stressed followed by an unstressed syllable

ex
UNit, PEAper, INstant
anapestic foot
consts of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable

ex
interCEDE, disarRANGED, camerOON
dactylic foot
consists of a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables

ex
WAHington, ECuador, APplejack
spondaic foot
consists of two successive stressed syllables

ex
HEARTBREAK, HEADLINE, KASHMIR
scan
rhyme - ABCD etc
rhythm - iambic
meter - pentameter
verse form - sonnet
most common form
iambic pentameter
rhyme scheme
abcdefg etc
rhythm
iambic, etc
meter
pentameter
verse form
shakesperean sonnet
poetic foot
unit of rhythm
how many beats are in 2 poetic feet of iambic
4
substitution
a change in regular rhythm
contradiction
specific meter, regular rhythm + meter