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86 Cards in this Set

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Define Rationalism
The theory that the exercise of reason, rather than experience, authority, or spiritual revelation, provides the primary basis for knowledge.
What is the time period of Rationalism?
1650-1800
Philosophers of the Age of Rationalism challenged...what?
traditions, folk wisdom, and other unscientific beliefs
What two famous spokesman formed the nucleus of a group of Oxford University reformers who fostered the tenets of humanism and rationalism by reviving interest in the writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors?
Sir Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus
Pangloss taught ...? (person)
Candide
What two famous spokesman formed the nucleus of a group of Oxford University reformers who fostered the tenets of humanism and rationalism by reviving interest in the writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors?
Sir Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus
Name writers of the Rationalistic style
Moliere, Swift, La Fontaine, Pascal
Galileo was a forerunner of what movement?
Rationalism
Who said "that gold, which in itself is so useless a thing, should be everywhere so musch esteemed, that even men for whom it was made, and by whom it has its value, should yet be thought of less value than it is."
More
Humanists urged liberalization of...?
the Church
"That's true enough, but we must go and work in the garden." Was said by ...? and in what work?
Voltaire, Candide
Humanists revided the study of ancient ----- and ----- authors, Such as ----- and ------.
Greek, Roman, Plateo, Cicero
Humanists felt that the importance of classical thought was not only in its substance, but also in its...?
form
Rationalists thought to balance...?
style and subject manner
Humanists insisted that people, once freed of the paralyzing fear of damnation, could...?
rise to greater ieights of virtue and good works...thereby assuring their salvation
What is neoclassicism?
A revival in literature in the late 17th and 18th centuries, characterized by a regard for the classical ideals of reason, form, and restraint.
A revival in the 18th and 19th centuries in architecture and art, especially in the decorative arts, characterized by order, symmetry, and simplicity of style.
The humanists life on Earth was more important than...?
preparing for and fearing death
Milton applied his talents to a re-creation of the ancient epic form based upon a crucial biblical subject...which was...?
the fall of humanity
Milton's stlye imitated that of ...?
Homer
Milton empasized ---- and ---'s ability to reason as the faced the alluring temptations and specious arguments of Satan, the wily fallen angel.
Adam, Eve
Who wrote "Essay Concerning the Human Understanding?"
John Locke
Who said "No man's knowledge here can go beyond his experience." ?
John Locke
Locke discribed the human mind as...?
tabula rasa, meaning blank slate
Both nature and reason were allied with the order that Rationalists sought to impose on their world, therby replacing enmity with...?
harmony
Locke placed a strong emphasis on...
reflection and the satisfaction of natural curiousity
Locke discribed the human mind as...?
tabula rasa, meaning blank slate
Jefferson and Washington were greatly influence by this movement...?
Rationalism
Name painters that were influnced by rationalism.
Jean Watteau, Francois Boucher, Antonio Canaletto
Name musicians that were influenced by rationalism.
Antonio Vivaldi, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Franz Joseph Haydn
During the age of rationalism people relieved tension by going to...?
spas and hot springs, particularly Math, England
Who wrote Utopia?
Sir Thomas More
A connection between Rationalism and Nature can be seen in...?
formal English gardens
Who published a mook of mathematical proofs in 1687 and shed light on the nature of gravity and the motion of the planets around the sun?
Isaac Newton
Who produced a detailed study of heavenly bodies?
Edmund Halley
Who invented the microscope?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Robert Boyle defined the...?
chemical elements
Edward Jenner began inoculations for ...?
smallpox
The Greewich Observatory was established in...?
1675
The Greenwich Observatory helped regulate the perception of time and focused expert attention on changes in the...?
weather and the movements of the mood and stars
Joseph Addison and Richard Steele produced the first literary magazines, --- ------ and --- ---------, which proved to be major successes, bringing humorous essays and witty commentary on daily topics to the average reader.
The Tatler, The Spectator
Who established a multivolume encyclopedia of world knowledge?
Denis Diderot
Charles de Montesquieu wrote...?
wise and perceptive essays and letters
Who wrote The Journal of the Plague Years?
Daniel Defoe
Robinson Crusoe was written by...?
Daniel Defoe
Moliere wrote...?
The Misanthrope and Tartuff which were comedies of human vice and virtue
A Tale of Tub and Gulliver's Travels was written by...?
Jonathan Swift, (they are examples of satire)
Moliere wrote...?
The Misanthrope and Tartuff which were comedies of human vice and virtue
Candide was the masterpiece of...?
Voltaire
Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes are creations of...?
John Milton
During the Age of Rationalism, in Russia, Czar Peter the Great...(what'd he do)...?
streamlined the military, introduced modern printing methods, reformed the calendar and tax system, built a new capital -St. Petersburg-, and educated peasantsin order to improve their lives.
During the Age of Rationalism, the persecution of witches...?
decreased
Who designed and rebuilt 52 churches, modeled primarily on the order and regularity of Italian Renaissance originals...?
Sir Christopher Wren
Who unwittingly preserved the tenor of the times in his diary, which covers the major political and historical upheavals of his era alongside a host of mundane affairs ...etc ?
Samuel Pepys
Benjamin Franklin and Thoman Paine borrowed ideas from...?
European theorists opposed to old regimes
In 1789 an uprising started in the streets of ----- and spread through the provinces, finally resulting in the establishment of a republic.
A revival in literature in the late 17th and 18th centuries, characterized by a regard for the classical ideals of reason, form, and restraint.
A revival in the 18th and 19th centuries in architecture and art, especially in the decorative arts, characterized by order, symmetry, and simplicity of style.
In 1789 an uprising started in the streets of ----- and spread through the provinces, finally resulting in the establishment of a republic.
Paris
Who said "Let them eat cake." ?
Marie-Antoinette
In "A Modest Proposal" who is the Pretender?
James Edward, son of King James II
Define prodigious.
enormous, huge
Who wrote "A Modest Proposal"?
Jonathan Swift
What piece begins "For Preventing the Children of poor People inm Ireland from being a Burden to their Parents or Country, and for making them beneficial to the Public"?
A Modest Proposal
Define repine.
complain, fret
When and where was Jonathan Swift born?
1667, Dublin, Ireland
In 1709 Swift pledged allegiance to the...?
Whigs
Jonathan Swift's cheif regret was...?
he never became a bishop
In 1742 Jonathan Swift was declared...?
insane
Who was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher born in Clermont-Ferrand and acclaimed in adolescence as a mathematical prodigy?
Blaise Pascal
What led Pascal to cultivate in relative solitude a brilliant scientific career?
poor health
Who engineered the first calculator and what was it called?
Pascal, la machine arithmetique
What is Jansenism?
A sect of Christianity which held that holiness is humanity's real goal, but few are chosen to recieve God's grace and ultimate salvation
On November 23, 1654 Pascal was visted by...?
Jesus Christ
In 1657 Pascal began writing...
Pensées
Define Paradox.
an idea or situation that appears to contradict itself but that is nevertheless true
Who wrote "Man and the Universe"?
Blaise Pascal
What was "Man and the Universe" about?
ANSWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION
"Man is but a reed, the weakest in nature, but he is a thinking reed." This passage can be found in...?
Man and the Universe
Define Tone.
Tone refers to an author's attitude toward the material being presented.
Jean de la Fontaine has a big nose and long curly blonde hair...
incase you didn't know
When did Jean de la Fontaine live?
1621-1695
Jean de La Fontaine wrote --- fables.
238
Define fable.
-a fable dramatizes a short lesson or principle of behavior through the antics of animals who speak and interact as though they were human
-a fable focuses on a single compressed episode, the thrust of the piece turns on an implied frailty or fault of character
Name 3 fables written by Fontaine
*The Boy and the Schoolmaster
*The Wolf and the Lamb
*The Council Held by the Rats
What is the moral of The Boy and the Schoolmaster?
ANSWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Define Moral.
ANSWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION
What is the moral in The Wolf and the Lamb?
ANSWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION
What is the moral in The Council Held by the Rats?
ANSWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION