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19 Cards in this Set

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ANAPHORA (NOUN)
The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs; for example, “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills” (Winston S. Churchill)
PARALLELISM (NOUN)
The repetition of syntactical similarities in passages closely connected for rhetorical effect. The repetitive structure lends wit or emphasis to the meanings of the separate clauses, thus being particularly effective in antithesis.
IMAGERY (NOUN)
The array of images in a literary work. Also, figurative language. William Butler Yeats's "The Second Coming" offers a powerful image of encroaching anarchy: Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart.….
ALLUSION (NOUN)
An indirect reference to some piece of knowledge not actually mentioned. Allusions usually come from a body of information that the author presumes the reader will know. For example, an author who writes, “She was another Helen,” is alluding to the proverbial beauty of Helen of Troy.
HYPERBOLE (NOUN)
An exaggerated, extravagant expression. It is hyperbole to say, “I'd give my whole fortune for a bowl of bean soup.”
SYNEDOCHE (NOUN)
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword).
METONYMY (NOUN)
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power.
SYNTAX (NOUN)
The sequence in which words are put together to form sentences. In English, the usual sequence is subject, verb, and object.
DICTION (NOUN)
Choice of words and the way in which they are used: parlance, phrase, phraseology, phrasing, verbalism, wordage, wording. See words.
SIMILE (NOUN)
A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as, as in “How like the winter hath my absence been” or “So are you to my thoughts as food to life” (Shakespeare).
METAPHOR (NOUN)
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the world's a stage” (Shakespeare).
ALLEGORY (NOUN)
A narrative technique in which characters representing things or abstract ideas are used to convey a message or teach a lesson. Allegory is typically used to teach moral, ethical, or religious lessons but is sometimes used for satiric or political purposes.
IRONY
sarcasm
COMPLEX SENTENCES
A sentence that contains one main clause or independent clause and at least one subordinate clause or dependent clause:
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
cannot stand alone as a sentence. In itself, a dependent clause does not express a complete thought; therefore, it is usually attached to an independent clause. Although a dependent clause contains a subject and a predicate, it sounds incomplete when standing alone.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
a clause that can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. Independent clauses express a complete thought and contain a subject and a predicate.
COMPOUND SENTENCES
A sentence of two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by a conjunction or conjunctions, as The problem was difficult, but I finally found the answer.
PERIODIC SENTENCES
A sentence in which the main clause or its predicate is withheld until the end; for example, Despite heavy winds and nearly impenetrable ground fog, the plane landed safely.
SATIRE
term applied to any work of literature or art whose objective is ridicule. It is more easily recognized than defined. From ancient times satirists have shared a common aim: to expose foolishness in all its guises—vanity, hypocrisy, pedantry, idolatry, bigotry, sentimentality—and to effect reform through such exposure.