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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Consists of those aspects of a speaker's knowledge of language that allow him or her to produce grammatical utterances
mental, or competence grammar
The linguist's description of the rules of a language
descriptive grammar
The socially embedded notion of the "correct" or "proper" ways to use a language
prescriptive grammar
What does it mean to say form and meaning are arbitrary?
Arbitrary refers to the fact that the meaning is not in any way predictable from the form, nor is the form dictated by the meaning.
Nonarbitrary form-meaning connections, forms that represent their meanings directly
Iconic (picture-like)
Words that are imitative of natural sounds or have meanings that are associated with such sounds of nature.
onomatopoetic words
What certain sounds occur in words not by virtue of being directly imitative of some sound but rather simply by being evocative of a particular meaning; that is, these words more abstractly suggest some physical characteristics by the way they sound.
Sound symbolism [i] example
Common features of communication systems:
1. A mode of communication.
2. Semanticity (meaning)
3. Pragmatic Function (serve some purpose)
4. Interchangeability. (both send and receive)
5. Cultural Transmission (learned through communicative interaction with other users)
6. Arbitrariness (form not equal meaning)
7. Discreteness (complex messages made out of smaller parts)
True language has two additional characteristics:
8. Displacement (ability to communicate about things that are not present in space or time)
9. Productivity (ability to produce and understand any number of messages that have never been expressed before and that may express novel ideas)
Symbols composed of geometric shapes