Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/34

Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
def Risk
probability of hazardous consequences
Risk=
(probability of undesired outcome)*(Size of loss)
Risk assessment examins (3):
Kind and degree of hazard
Extent of exposure (and to whom)
Present or potential risks
Two types of risk assessment
Ecological health assessment(effects on plants, animals, waterways...)
Human health assessment (Individual effects, societal effects, unequal effects)
risk Management
Decision making process that considers social, political, economic, and engineering info along with risk related info to develop analyze and compare options and to select appropriate actions
Goals of risk Management
ALARA-as low as reasonably achievable
Risk-cost-benifit analysis-reduced risk worth the cost relative to beefits
De minimis risk-regulatory cutoff below which the risk is trivial
Some types of system failures
Mechanical
Interface
Human-induced
Exernal
Influence diagrams
tools for visualizing relationships between different system elements
Different types of phenomenon (squares...)
Decisions-boxes
chances events-oval
calculations-rounded box
Objectives-hexagon
Event and Decision Trees-(6)
Logical identification of outcomes
Probabilistic (probabilities in series)
Decision nodes and probability nodes
Begins with initiating event (or decision)
Allows for comparison of paths
Supports decision_making and policy
Decision and event tree notation
Box for decision node
circle for probability node
sideways triangle or small circle for end node
Letters (such as P) and subscripts for probabilities
Risk-Cost-Benifit Analysis
Compares benefits with probability and magnitude of bad consequences
assumes diminishing returns
usually needs common metric
can be combined with event and/or decision trees
Risk-Cost-Benifit fundamentals
measures of costs and benefits
estimates of risk (probabilities)
Mathematical equation for expressing the relationship between these three
Factors affecting Risk Perception
Voluntary/involuntary
effects immediate or delayed
risk known or uncertain
occupational exposure or not
common hazard or dread
consequences reversible or irreversible
publicity
Econoic topics important to engineers
Rate of return
Interest
Present worth/future worth, discounting
Installment loans
Cost-Benefit comparisons
Life-Cycle analysis
Stages of Product Life Cycle
material extraction
Material processing
Manufacturing
Use
Waste management
Life Cycle Analysis
Bases decisions on a long-term view
Recycle
Remanufacture
Reuse
Reduce
Goals of industrial ecology
Circulate and reuse materials
reduce the amount of materials used in products
minimize or elimainate the flow of harmful substances
minimize use of energy and flow of heat back into the environment
Areas of Concern in industrial ecology
Atmospheric pollution
Water pollution
Solid and hazardous wastes
Radioactive wastes
Land use, habitat, and ecosystems impacts
Two major fields of economics
Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
Annual Percentage Rate
Effects of different compounding periods expressed as if compounded annualy
Structure of a paragraph
Transition
Core topic sentence
Body
Transistion
Properties of good powerPoint presentations
Simple
Clean
Subtle
Consistent
Balenced
Properties of bad powerPoint presentations
Clutter
Obviousness
Decorativeness
Sloppieness
Arbitraryness
Three Parts to a formal report
Front matter
Body
End Matter
Parts to the Front Matter
Cover
Tital Page
Table of Contents
Lists of Tables and Figures
Executive summary
Parts of the body
Background on problem
Criteria/Method of evaluating findings
Available options
Findings/results
Discussion/Interpretation
Conclusions/recomendations
Parts of End Matter
Blank Page
Appendicies
References
Back Cover
Structure of an executive summary
Background Element
Summary Element
Future-Oriented Element
Problems with sentences
Hidden Verbs and subjects
Fualty parallelism
Misplaced and dangling modifiers
Unclear Emphasis
Vague relationships between ideas
Lack of point of view
Entities affected by failure
Empoyees/workers
End users of the technology
Public as a whole
Natural Environmental
Ten Steps to engineering design (H and R)
1.Identify the need and define the problem
2.Assemble design team
3.ID constraints and criteria for success
4.Search for solutions
5.Analyze eac potential solution
6.Select the best solution
7.Document the solution
8.Communicate solution to management
9.Construct the solution
10.Verify and evaluate solution's efficancy
5 steps in Dym and Little design process
1.Problem definition
2.Conceptual design
3.Preliminary design
4.Detailed design
5.Design communication
Haik view of design process
1.Need
2.Goals
3.Market analysis
4.Functions
5.Specifications
6.Conceptualization
7.Evaluating alternatives
8.Analysis
9.Experiment
10.Marketing $$$