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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Transportation Engineering
the application of technology and scientific priciples to the palanning, functional design, operations, and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to proviede safe, rapidm comfortablem convenient, economicalm and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods.
Parts of the transportation system
1.Physical facilities
2.Fleets
3.Operating bases
4.Organixations
5.Operating strategies
Physical facilities ex.
Highways, roads, airports, railroads, ports
Fleets, ex.
Vehicals, ships, boats, aircraft
Operating bases, ex.
Maintenance faacilities, garages, office space
Organixations, ex.
Government, manufacturers, carriers, construction
Operating strategies, ex.
Routing, scheduling, traffic control, security
Issues in transportation engineering (9)
.Traffic congestion
.traffic safety
.Construction principles and standards
.Equality of access and impacts
.Energy and environment
.use of new technology
.Homeland security
.Funding
.Institutional arrangements
Traffic congestion results from:
.mismatch in supply and demand
.Peak effects
.Land use issues (sprawl)
.Lack of model options
How are speed, density, and flow related
E1 p.5
How many deaths are caused by vehicle crashes every year
about 42.6 thousand
what percent of fatal vehical crashes are alcohol related
40%
what are the major types of fatal vehicle crashes
Road departure:25,136
Intersection-related:9213
pedestrian:4749
Transportation Justice
Equal access to and impacts from transportation systems
Where does transportation funding come from
.Federal aid
.State and local
.Politics and deficits
technologists
apply science and mathematicss to well-defined problems that generally do not require the depth of knowledge possesse by engineers and scientists
technicians
generally supervised by engineers and scientists to accomplish specific tasks such as drafting, laoratory procedures, and model building.
Artisans
have the manual skills to construct devices specified by scientists engineers technologists and technicians
traits of professionals
.extensive intellectual training
.Pass qualifying exam
.vital skills
.monopoly
.autonomy
.code of ethics
Etiquette
codes of behavior and courtesy
Moral Rights
rights that belong to all humans, regardless of whether these rights are recognized by the government
Ethics
consists of general and abstract concepts of right and wrong behavior.
ethical Sources of conflict
.Moral issues
.Conceptual issues
.application issues
.factual issues
Ethical egoism
moral theory sstating that an act is moral provided you act inn your enlightened self-interest.
Utilitarianism
moral activities are those that create the most good for the most people. (benifits - harms)
Rights analysis
moral actions are those that equally respect each human being. (Golden rule)
common code guidelines
1.Protect the public safety, health, and welfare
2.Perform duties only in areas of competence
3.be truthful and objective
4.behave in an honorable and dignified manner
5.continue learning to sharpen technical skills
6.Provide honest hard work to employers or clients
7.Inform the proper authorities of harmful, dangerous, or illegal activities
8.Be involved with civic and community affairs
9.Protect the environment
10.Do not accept bribes
11.Protect confidential information of employer or client
12.avoid conflicts of interest
Sources of environmental impacts
materials selection
manufacturing processes
energy use
Catalytic Converter
uses catalysts to convert hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O
Virtue Ethics
.common sense ethics
.Encoureges good habits
Pragmatism
.Emphasixes the limitations of abstract rules
.Emphasixes importance of flexibility
Five fundamental canons
1.Hold paramount safety, health, welfare of public in performing duties
2.Work only in area of expertise
3.Speak only objectively and truthfully
4.Act as faithful agents of employers
5.Avoid deceptive acts in seeking work
Stakeholder
entities who are affected by a particular process, situation or the like
process of stakeholder analysis
1.Identify who the stakeholders are
2.identify how their interests and how they might be affected
3.Weight or otherwise synthesize these effects (importance and magnitude) to reach a decision.
Anthropocentrism
evaluating moral decisions exclusively in terms of human values.
Biocentrism
Evaluating moral decisions from the perspective that all of nature has value
Four major concerns of environmental ethics
.Intergenerational equity
.interspecific equity
.sustainability
.Environmental justice
Front matter
Memo headers
Overview
Purpose statement
Summary
3 parts of the Purpose Statemnent
.Organizational problem
.task
.communication purpose
Examples of what engineers write
.Propose projects to management or to clients
.write progress reports to managers
.describe a product to coworkers or customers
.write procedures and instructions
.justify requests for funding to managers
.Edit and review documents written by colleagues
.design material for compputer screens
Professional communication (writing) means:
.Aimed at a specific task or issue within an organization
.appeals to understanding(rather than imagination)
.Readers need your information to: perform a task, answer a question, solve a problem, or make a decision
Ethical issues in professional writing
.Citing sources
.Faithfulness to facts
.Accountability to your team
describe "Faithfulness to facts"
.Persuasion is not the same as selling
.Be accurate above all
.Quantify where possible
.Don't "Cherry-pick" facts to suit your biases
.Watch for bias in sources
describe Accountability to your team
.Everyone paricipates and is responsible
.If it goes out with your name on it, it is yours.
Why document sources
.Ethics
.Efficiency (readers can assess a source for themselves)
.Authority (claims are supported)
In order to write pursuasively engineers need to be able to:
.Idenify the target audience of decision-makers
.make their purposes clear
.make criteria for decisions clear and believable to audience
.stae claims clearly
.suppor those claims with arguments and evidence
.anticipate and counter objections and side issues
How to defend claims
.State claim upfront
.Have sound support
.Define contorversial or ambiguous terms
.put generalizations first then particulars
.Put points in order of importance
.consider opposing arguments
.Remember economics,feasibility, safety & liability, and Quality
Toulmin's account
Support a Claim, and provide Warrant for that support
Main body
1.Background
2.Discussion
3.Conclusion
End Matter
.References
.Appendicies
.Attachments
Memo format (7)
.Team letterhead
.Memo headers
.Block paragraphs
.Section headings in bold
.Tables and figures numbered
.Page numbers at bottom after first page
.Absolue consstency n style ad format throughout
Summary
.Main clain: Findings, conclusions, and recomendations
.Significant details
.Implicatios for the organization
Profession
A calling requiring special knowledge and often long and intensixe academic preperation
Energy Sources
.Fossil fuels(coal, petroleum, natural gas)
.Natural sources (wind, solar, hydro, geothermal)
.Nuclear fuel
.Refuse
.Biomass
Transportation Demand modeling steps
1.Socio-economic and land use forcasts
2.Trip generation
3.Trip Distribution
~4.Mode Choice
5.Trip assignment
Trip generation
how many trips
trip distribution
from where to where
mode choice
what mode - predicts spread of trips across available modes
Trip assignment
what route - assigns routes
List modes of travel by throughput
Walking, commuter trains
highways, roadways
Buses
How is energy efficiency and fuel consumption in a nateion related
directly
emmisions and effects
CO-Poisonous
CO2-greenhouse gas
NOx-photochemical smog
VOC's-smog
Four major concerns of environmental egineering
1.Intergenerational ethics
2.Interspecific ethics
3.Sustainability
4.environmental justice (are certain groups disproportionally affected by environmental effects)