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17 Cards in this Set

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The social setting and function of the interaction, who is talking to whom. The setting of the social context, home-work-school. The aim or purpose of the interaction, informative or social.
SOCIAL FACTORS
What are the four different scales used to measure social dimensions?
SOCIAL DISTANCE
STATUS
FORMALITY
FUNCTIONAL
This scale measures:

Intimate -------------- Distant
High solidarity ----- Low solidarity
SOLIDARITY-SOCIAL DISTANCE SCALE

USEFUL IN EMPHASIZING THAT HOW WELL WE KNOW SOMEONE IS A RELEVANT FACTOR IN LINGUISTIC CHOICE.
This scale measures:

Superior High Status
| |
| |
Subordinate Low Status
STATUS SCALE

POINTS TO THE RELEVANCE OF RELATIVE STATUS IN SOME LINGUISTIC CHOICES. EX. THE USE OF SIR SIGNALS THAT A PERSON IS OF HIGHER STATUS
This scale measures:

Formal High Formality
| |
| |
Informal Low Formality
FORMALITY SCALE

USEFUL IN ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SETTING ON LANGUAGE CHOICE. EX. IN THE OFFICE WITH A MANAGER
This scale measures:

High Info Content --- Low Info Content
(Referential)

Low Affective Co. -- High Affective Co.
(Affective)
REFERENTIAL AND AFFECTIVE FUNCTION

THESE ARE PARTICULARLY PERVASIVE AND BASIC. CAN EXPRESS INFORMATION AND HOW SOMEONE IS FEELING. EX. GOSSIP MAY PROVIDE A GREAT DEAL OF NEW INFO.
This involves typical interactions between typical participants in typical settings.

A number of typical interactions have been identified as relevant in describing patterns of code choice in many speech communities.
DOMAINS OF LANGUAGE
Sociolinguists is concerned with the relationship between ---- and the ---- in which it is used.
LANGUAGE, CONTEXT
In any community, the distinguishable varieties or codes which are available for use in different social contexts form a lot of available options.

The members of each community have their own --- ----.
LINGUISTIC REPERTOIRE

In other words, in every community there is a range of varieties from which people select according to the context in which they are communicating.
Because of certain similarities, sociolinguists use the term ---- to refer to any set of linguistic forms which patterns according to social factors.
VARIETY- CODE

REFERRING TO LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT, A SET OF SET OF LINGUISTIC FORMS USED UNDER SPECIFIC SOCIAL CIRCUMSTANCES.
The pattern of code or variety in certain regions has been described by the term ----. Is has been used both in a narrow sense and in a much broader sense and it has 3 crucial features.
DIGLOSSIA
What are the 3 crucial features of Diglossia?
1) TWO DISTINCT VARIETIES OF THE SAME LANGUAGE ARE USED IN THE COMMUNITY, WITH ONE REGARDED AS HIGH (H) AND OTHER LOW (L)
2) EACH VARIETY IS USED FOR QUITE DISTINCT FUNCTIONS; H AND L COMPLEMENT EACH OTHER
3) NO ONE USES THE H VARIETY IN EVERY DAY CONVERSATION
When communities have many different codes for different purposes, a new term is needed to describe it. The term --- has been used for situations like this where a community regularly uses more than two languages.
POLYGLOSSIA
When people switch from one code to another for reasons which CAN be identified, it is sometimes called ---- ---.
SITUATIONAL SWITCHING
When speaking a second language, people will often use a term from their mother language because they don't know the appropriate word in the second language. These are triggered by lack of vocabulary.
LEXICAL BORROWING
This kind of code switching is done for rhetorical reasons, drawing on the associations of both codes.
METAPHORICAL SWITCHING

INVOLVES RHETORICAL SKILL, CODE-SWITCHING OPERATES LIKE A METAPHOR TO ENHANCE THE COMMUNICATION
To ---- a language, you must have people you can use it with on a regular basis.
MAINTAIN

IF FAMILIES FROM A MINORITY GROUP LIVE NEAR EACH OTHER AND SEE EACH OTHER FREQUENTLY, THIS ALSO HELPS MAINTAIN THEIR LANGAUGE