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22 Cards in this Set

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The heart predominantly uses energy in the form of what?
Fatty Acids
Which transporter is used to transport glucose into the myocardiocyte?
GLUT 4 (stimulated by insulin and ischemia)
What does acetyl coA carboxylase-2 do?
It converts acetyl coA to malonyl coA.

Malonyl coA then ihibis carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) --> blocking fatty acyl CoA entry into the cell.
How is fatty acyl coa entry into muscle mitochondria regulated?
Through energy levels. If energy decreases, it leads to an increase in AMP. If AMP goes up, then it activates AMP-PK. If AMP-PK is activated, it phosphorylates ACC-2 and inactivates it. Since ACC-2 is preventing fatty acyl coa entry into the cell, the inactivation will now allow entry.
How do muscle cells store energy?
They store high energy phosphate bonds in a form of creatine phosphate.
Where does creatine synthesis start and end?
Starts in the kidney

Ends in the liver
What are the precursor aa for creatine phosphate?
Glycine

Arginine
Can we use creatine for energy?
No, creatine isn't an "active" form of energy. It must be PHOSPHORYLATED (by ATP) to creatine phosphate.
Which enzyme is used to phosphorylate creatine?
Creatinephospho Kinase
What is clinically useful of creatine kinase?
We can measure serum CK to diagnose:
1) strokes
2) Heart attacks
3) Muscle disorders
How do muscle cells store energy?
They store high energy phosphate bonds in a form of creatine phosphate.
Where does creatine synthesis start and end?
Starts in the kidney

Ends in the liver
What are the precursor aa for creatine phosphate?
Glycine

Arginine
Can we use creatine for energy?
No, creatine isn't an "active" form of energy. It must be PHOSPHORYLATED (by ATP) to creatine phosphate.
Which enzyme is used to phosphorylate creatine?
Creatinephospho Kinase
What is clinically useful of creatine kinase?
We can measure serum CK to diagnose:
1) strokes
2) Heart attacks
3) Muscle disorders
Creatine phosphate is unstable and cyclizes between itself and Creatinine. Which form is excreted in urine?
creatinine
What does measuring creatinine in the urine tell us?
Tells us the body mass
If we have a high amount of blood glucose and amino acids, what will the body do?
It will package glucose into glycogen and metabolize amino acids. Energy from fatty acid oxidation is sufficient.
When citrate leaves the mitochondria, this will eventually lead to what?
Inhibition of fatty acid entry into cell (activates ACC2, Produces Malonyl CoA, inhibits CPT-1)
What is one way to stimulate glycogenolysis?
Epinephrine
What is required in order for fats to e used?
Carbohydrates
-prime source of pyruvate
-pyruvate